Huns pressure Germanic tribes to move westward Allies with Germanic Tribes Odoacer, is the German Ostragoth adopts the role as the Roman Emperor in 476, and he comes from Attila’s Court! I. The End of the Western ROMAN Empire, and the Shining Lights of a dark age
Attila The hun Franks
A. The Ostrogothic Kingdom of Italy • Theodoric the Great (493 – 526) killed Odoacer himself. Founded a kingdom in Italy (30 yrs peace) • Catholic Western Popes supported him even though they believed that Ostragoths heretics of Arianism. • Byzantine invasion (535 – 554) under Justinian (having been elected Eastern Emperor moves to take back Italy) • Lombard invasion (568) see Map: Next Slide B. The Visigothic(West Goth) Kingdom of Spain • Coexistence between Romans and Germans • Warrior caste* • No procedure for choosing rulers II. The Eastern (Greek) Germanic Kingdoms
C. The Frankish Kingship: The Merovingians • Merovech: (b. 411 to 458): • Fights the Huns with Rome (assumes Rome will “adopt” them); Where we get the term “Merovingian” • Childeric: (b. 457 to 481) Roman Mercenary and Frankish King (pictured Left). • Clovis (c. 482 – 511): Grandson of Merovech • Converts to Catholic Christianity c. 500 • Fusion of Gallo-Roman and Frankish Peoples D. Anglo-Saxon England • Angles and Saxons invade England, early 5th century III. WeSTERNGermanIC-FRANKISH Kingdoms cont.
Gothic…resemblance to Tolkien? "Of old, goes the tale, did Humli rule the Huns Gizur the Geats Angantyr the Goths Valdar the Danes Caesar the Walha [Romans] and brave Alrek [possibly King Alfred the Great], who founded the English nation" the famous forest called Mirkwood there the holy grave on the Gothic highway that famous rock on the banks of the Dniepr half of the war-gear that was Heidrek's land and people and bright rings
A. Germanic Law:PersonalNOT Civil, as in Roman Law • Blood feud: Powerful Patriarchal Families (that emphasized loyalty to extended families of husband-wife, etc.) Injustices were righted by direct payback in kind (or worse) • Wergeld: “Money for a man” Payment to family for wrong • Compurgation (oath) and trial by ordeal: divine intervention B. The Frankish Family and Marriage: Women in Frankish Society: Marriage and the Cloister 500 to 900 (By Suzanne FonayWemple) • “Personality of the Law” Family at the center of social organization (Father rules; wife submits; “common law”) • Marriage: Woman is fully domesticated; After conversion in 500, Clovis’ Franks were forcibly converted to Christian ideal of marriage IV. Society of the Germanic Peoples
A. The Church Fathers • St. Augustine (354 – 430) • The City of God:Babylon equated with Pagan Rome versus the Eternal City of the New Jerusalem in Heaven • The Confessions:Autobiographical account of a man vexed with his separation from God in Sin, and ultimate baptism • St. Jerome (345 – 420): Translated the Ancient OT and NT into LATIN VULGATE from the original Hebrew, Greek, Aramaic, etc. B. The Power of the Pope…until Reformation, • The Pope is the leader of the Western Christian Church • Leo I (r. 440 – 461) and the Petrine supremacy • Zeal for WESTERN ORTHODOXY In 452, met Attila the Hun outside Rome and asked him not to Sack Rome; asserts authority on Manicheans fleeing Vandals (with public debates and book burnings); and asserts Papal Authority (Palestine) V. Progression of the Christian Church in MIDDLE aGES.
Growing Power of Church Officials • Role of “appointed” bishops in imperial government • Ambrose of Milan (c. 339 – 397) • Weakness of the central, political authorities in Italy • Pope Gregory I, “the Great” (r. 590 – 604) What did he not do to reassert the Catholic Church Authority? • Reclamation of Papal states; • Expansion of papal authority through diplomacy & funding of some powerful Lombard Kings; • Praise of the Meditation of Black Monks & “Gregorian Hymns” • Conversion of Anglo-Saxons, although Irish Monasticism was idependently strong at this time. C. Church and State
Monachus = one who lives alone • Saint Antony (c. 250 – 350) • Benedictine Monasticism • Saint Benedict of Nursia (c. 480 – c. 543) • Rule of St. Benedict: Silence, Confession, Canonical Hours, Work “idle hands are devil’s workshop” • Benedictine Order: The Abbot (“father”) • Nuns (Abbesses) D. Who are Monks, and whaT are their Missions?
Irish Monasticism: Book of Kells, Lindisfarne Gospels, etc. Lindisfarne Monastery is notoriously raided and looted by Vikings and Monks are slaughtered. • Saint Columba (521 – 597) • Iona • Roman Mission to England (Augustine the monk) • Boniface (c. 680 – 755) mission to Frisia, Bavaria, and Saxony E. Monks as Missionaries
Double Monasteries • Anglo-Saxon Nun Saint Hilda founds the monastery of Whitby (657) • Nuns as Missionaries • Leoba founds convent at Bischofsheim (Germany) • Hildegard of Bingen (1098 to 1179) The Renaissance Women of the Middle Ages: F. Women and Monasticism
Cassiodorus (c. 490 – c. 585) • Divine and Human Readings • Seven Liberal Arts • Trivium: grammar, rhetoric and logic • Quadrivium: arithmetic, astronomy, geometry and music • The Venerable Bede • (c. 672 – 735) Ecclesiastical History of the English People (731) G. Christian Intellectual Life in the Germanic Kingdoms
Belisarius and the Restoration of the Roman Empire (Subject of Renaissance and French Neoclassical Art Depictions) • Corpus JurisCivilis (“Body of Civil Law”: Codification of Roman Laws) • Intellectual Life • Procopius (c. 500 – 562) The Histories (Public & Secret) • The Empress Theodora • Actress and former prostitute turned influential Empress • By virtue of her high intelligence and assertive nature she procures great influence in government • The Emperor’s Buildings in Constantinople • Rebuilt after riot in 532 • Palaces • Church of Hagia Sophia (537) • Hippodrome VI. Reviewing The Reign of Justinian (527 – 565)
Problems left by Justinian • Threats on the Frontiers • Byzantines fight Muslims • Battle of Yarmuk (636) • Bulgars: Original nomads were driven out and Slavs moved in. • The Byzantine Empire in the Eighth Century • By the 700s, Byzantine Empire had become a Greek Church • Conflict over use of icons—Emperor Leo III’s iconoclasm • Power of the emperor—Backlash to #2 led to the Western Pope’s reassertion of Western Roman Catholicism in the recognition of the Imperial Rule of Pepin the Short (Charles the Great’s, AKA Charlemagne’s dad) • Split with the Western Germanic Kingdoms VII. From Eastern Roman to Byzantine Empire
Just turn to Islam Notes and check-off (add there) • The Arabs: Arabian Peninsula: Mecca and Medina, Damascus and Trade Routes • Bedouins (nomadic herders and trader) • Allah (one God) – Ka’bah (the black box shrine) • What’s the difference in the Hajj, and the Hajra VIII. March of Islam review
Muhammad (570 – 632) Key Points • Born in Mecca – caravan manager • Hegira (Journey to Medina in 622) • Submission to the will of Allah • Qur’an (Koran) • 114 Chapters or Sura • Five Pillars of Islam • Shari’aLaw (Islamic Law used to interpret Qu’ran) • Next pages show: Map of Islamic Empire in 732, Libraries in Turkey and Arabian Peninsula A. What is Islam? A faith based on the teachings of:
The Expansion of Islam, 750 • By 660, Persia and Egypt—By 750, N. Africa and Spain
Abu Bakr becomes the first “Rightly” elected Caliph (632) • Jihad (Holy War) • Attacks against Byzantines and Persians • Assassination of Caliph Ali—”Muhammed Ali”: The true blood descendent of Mohammed: • Just know that Shi’ites, (or Shia Muslims) are followers of Ali as the true blood descendents (Saudi Arabia and Iran). Ali is his Father’s Brother’s Son, his first cousin. But Mohammed’s Powerful (& beloved) Uncle raised him. • Muawiya becomes caliph (661) • Umayyad Dynasty: Sunnis who constructed Dome of the Rock • Chose Damascus as their capital. (Syria, Iraq, and N. Africa) • Sunnites, supporters of the Umayyads: “Deputies of Muhammed”, more at dynastic Islam, Caliphs’ authority is a “spoil” of imperial conquest. • Conquer North Africa and much of Spain • Battle of Tours (732) Charles the Hammer Martel defeats the Berbers (Moors) in France, and they never return. • Muslim attack on Constantinople and defeat (717–718) • Constantinople will bounce back only to fall to Turks in 1452AD B. Details on Spread of Islam
Muhammed’sMiraj, 622: Night flight with the Angel Gabriel. In keeping with tradition, the prophet’s face is blotted out with white light.
The Moors were the medieval Muslim inhabitants of al-Andalus (SPAIN, or the Iberian Peninsula including present day Gibraltar, Spain and Portugal) as well as the Maghreb and western Africa, whose culture is often called Moorish. The word was also used more generally in Europe to refer to anyone of Arab or North African descent but properly it should only be applied to Berbers of North Africa and Iberia. • The name Moors derives from the ancient tribe of the Maure and their kingdom, Mauretania. C. NW Africa, Spain, Berbers, Moors (Mauretanians), etc….
Ceiling of the Mihrab Chapel, Great Mosque of Cordoba, Spain. PLEASE remember the material glories and Enlightenment of Islam
How did the Germanic tribes differ from the Romans? What role did the Christian Church play in filling the vacuum left by the passing of the Roman Empire? Why was monasticism so important and influential in Europe during the first millennium? How successful was Christianity in converting the non-Christian peoples of Europe? What was the place of women in the Christian world in the early middle ages? What was Justinian’s impact on the history of the Byzantine Empire? Why was Islam able to expand so quickly and widely? Discussion Questions
The Sutton Hoo Society About Viking Burial Sites Virtual Tour of monasteries Augustine of Hippo Byzantine Studies on the Internet Hagia Sophia: Chronicle of the Great Church Exploring Ancient World Cultures – Islam The Rightly Guided Caliphs Web Links
Examples of Lindesfarne Gospels: Lindesfarne sacked by Vikings in 793 Charlemagne and his Carolingian Renaissance Monasteries, the book arts, andcharlemagne
“Rebirth” of classical humanism:Monks as Copyists of the 700s: Middle Ages return to classical Motifs in book Arts, Apostles and Monks as “philosopher-poet-sages”: Matthew & Mark, Lindisfarne Gospel Cross Lion of St. Mark St Matthew
LindisfarneGospel, South England Across from IONA Scotland, Britain“Carpet Page”
More Pages in the Lindisfarne Gospel Eagle of St. John Ox of St. Luke
Timeline Review last Section of CH10, about Umayyad, in Bhagdad!
Sparsely populated, heavily forested landscape • Farming • Less than 10 percent of the land was cultivated • Low crop yields: Subsistence Farming at first • Climate • Improving weather after 700 (after several mini-ice ages…more to come in the 12th and 13th Cent) • Constant threat of natural disaster • Dilemma: To the extent the climate improves, farming methods increase yields, population increases, and food gets scarce again, famine returns I. Europeans and the Environment, 500 to 900
Single-family Peasant Farm • In the poor economy of a Dark Age, Roman Lords of “Villas” realized they could not purchase slaves • Settle the slaves owned for rent to the estate owner • Agricultural Innovation • Heavy Wheeled Plow • More efficient use of Horses and Oxen (tandem) • Three Field System: Cultivate 2/3; and graze the village livestock on 1/3 to drop manure II. The New Economy (500 to 900), that will lead to the a major population boom
D. Some freemen (peasants, Roman and German), and slaves (half-freed), like indentured serfs, or sharecroppers to the estate (this is pre-manorialism which develops in 12th cent). E. Intermarriage: (between Roman men and German women) F. Peasants paid rent for their farms, and returned labor or produce as well, such as carting, plowing, harvesting and haymaking on the estate G. Merchant trade continues to build steam. The Mediterranean (Genoa and Florence to Black Sea a huge artery. Eastern Luxury items (such as silks, spices, wines, and olive oils) pour in to be traded for Burgundian Cloth, because the church, the nobility and the wealthy continue to demand them. Holdover of the Old Latifundia System
Charlemagne and the Carolingian Empire (768 – 814) • Charles Martel “The Hammer” defeats Moors (Muslims-Spain) • Pepin “the Short” (751 – 768) deposed last Merovingian • Charlemagne from Carolus Magnus, or Charles the Great is crowned the first HRE (since Odoacer broke the succession). Reward for helping Pope defeat Lombards. • Expansion of the Carolingian Empire • Army gathered each spring for a campaign • Carolingians crush Lombards advance in N. Italy (773) • Disastrous campaign in Spain (777) Franks retreat • Prevailed in successful 33 year campaigns against the Saxons • Suppresses and holds territory vs. Bavarians, Slavs and Avars III. The World of the Carolingians: “Carolus Magnus”
Charlemagne was engaged in almost constant battle throughout his reign, often at the head of his elite scara bodyguard squadrons, with his legendary sword Joyeuse in hand. After thirty years of war and eighteen battles—the Saxon Wars—he conquered Saxonia and proceeded to convert the conquered to Roman Catholicism, using force where necessary. Painting is by Albrecht Durer, a German Renaissance painter of the North, active in Germany in the early 1500s Charlemagne, HRE—800
In 778, Charlemagne led an army across the Western Pyrenees, while the Austrasians, Lombards, and Burgundians passed over the Eastern Pyrenees. The armies met the bands of Turks along those mountain passes. Indeed, Charlemagne was facing the toughest battle of his career if he fought them, and, in fear of losing, he decided to retreat and head home. He could not trust the Moors, nor the Basques, whom he had subdued by conquering Pamplona. Charlemagne turned to leave Iberia, but as he was passing through the Pass of Roncesvalles one of the most famous events of his long reign occurred. The Basques fell on his rearguard and baggage train, utterly destroying it. The Battle of Roncevaux Pass, less a battle than a mere skirmish, left many famous dead: among them … was the *LOYAL*, ever-faithful warden of the Breton March, Roland, inspiring the subsequent creation of the Song of Roland (Chanson de Roland). Fealty of Roland*
Governing the Empire • Income from royal estates • Counts as administrators • MissiDominici • System very inefficient • Help from the Church • Charlemagne as Emperor • Pope Leo III (795 – 816) • Charlemagne crowned emperor in 800 IV. Governing Charlemagne’s Empire
XII. Carolingian Renaissance: Scriptoria from Naturalism to Expression Miniscule
Like Constantine before him, this great warrior’s Faith was his calling. St. Matthew from “The Coronation Gospel”
XIII. Life in the Carolingian World: • The Church, Marriage and Sexuality • Monogamy • Divorce prohibited • The nuclear family • Christianity and Sexuality • Celibacy • Sexual activity permitted only within marriage • Homosexuality • Travel and Hospitality D. Diet and Health • Bread as the basic staple • Pork, wild game, dairy, eggs, vegetables • Gluttony and drunkenness • Medical practices • Holistic Herbs and Bleeding • Superstitions Magic E. He sends all FRANKS to school!
Louis the Pious (814 – 840) Third Son, crowns himself Emperor (uncontested by Nobles) • Treaty of Verdun (843): Division of the Empire • Charles the Bald (843 – 877): Western Section • Louis the German (843 – 876): Eastern Section • Lothair (840 – 855): Middle Section • Emergence of two different cultures • Conflicts between the three sons of Louis the Pious XIV. Disintegration of the Carolingian Empire