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Whey – A By-product of the Dairy Industry Presented by Mark Naughton Aidan Doyle Hugh Holland
Whey is the watery portion of milk remaining after milk coagulation and removal of the curd. Whey can be obtained by acid, heat, and rennet coagulation of milk. There are two types of whey. • Sour Whey Ph3.8 - 4.6 • Sweet Whey Ph5.2 - 6.7 What is Whey
Sour\Acid Whey • Acid Whey: Acid whey is obtained during making of acid type of cheese such as cottage cheese. • Ph3.8 - 4.6
Sweet Whey • Sweet Whey: Sweet whey is manufactured during making of rennet type hard cheese like cheddar or Swiss cheese. • Ph5.2 - 6.7
Individual Proteins of Whey • b -lactoglobulin 50% • a -lactalbumin 20% • Immunoglobulins 20% • Serum Albumin 5% • Minor Proteins 5%
Beta-lactoglobulin b-Lactoglobulin is the most abundant protein in whey (about 6 g/l) and is responsible for functional properties such as the ability of whey protein to form a gel on heating.
Alpha-lactalbumin • Alpha-lactalbumin is a whey protein high in the amino acid tryptophan, which the body uses to make the neurotransmitter serotonin. • Purified alpha-lactalbumin is most readily used in infant formula manufacturing, as it has the most structurally similar protein profile compared to breast milk.
Immunoglobulins • An immunoglobulin (Ig) is an antibody • whey fraction of milk appears to contain a significant amount of immunoglobulins, approximately 10-15 percent of total whey proteins.
Choice Of Whey Processes. • Depends on the type of whey • Depends on market & location • Climate
Membrane filtration of Whey Whey divided by use of membrane filter • Ultrafilteration • Microfilteration • Nanofilteration Resulting in • Whey protein concentrate • Whey portein isolate • Lactose Permeate
MembreneFiltration Membrane processing is the: • Separation without the use of heat. • Particles are separated on the basis of theirmolecular size and shape with the use of pressure and specially designed semi-permeable membranes. • There two main forms of membrane filtration involved in the whey processing industry Micro Filteration & Ultrafilteration.
Micro Filteration Microfiltration is characterized as having a molecular weight cut-off range (MWCO) from about 50,000 to 500,000. Microfiltration of Whey involves Retention of fatand large molecular weight whey proteins from small whey proteins, Non-Protein Nitrogen (NPN), lactose and minerals of a lower molecular weight.particles in the range of 0.05-10 microns.Microfiltration is used for fermentation,broth clarification and biomass clarification and recovery.
Applications Fat removal for WPI production: the limitation of fat removal from whey by mechanical separation results in high fat WPC. This high fat level limits the maximum protein content in the final WPC powder, usually 80-84% depending on the feed quality. Whey protein isolates (WPI) require reduction of fat content in the final product to < 0.5%.
Ultrafiltration of Whey Fractioning and retention of fat and whey proteins of high molecular weight from Non-Protein Nitrogen (NPN), lactose and minerals of a lower molecular weight.
Applications • 35% - 65% Whey Protein Concentrate Production: Total solids for 10-28% depending on incoming feed characteristics. • WPC 70-85% Whey Protein Concentrate Production: Fat removal with Microfiltration is required depending on feed characteristics. Diafiltration is required.
Nanofilteration Nanofiltration can perform separation applications such as demineralization, color removal, and desalination. In concentration of organic solutes, suspended solids, and polyvalent ions, the permeate contains monovalent ions and low-molecular-weight organic solutions like alcohol.
Whey Protein Concentrate Whey protein concentrate has anywhere between 29% and 89% protein depending upon the product. As the protein level in whey protein concentrate decreases the amounts of fat and/or lactose usually increase.
Whey Protein Isolate Whey protein isolate is the most pure and concentrated form of whey protein available. It contains 90% or more protein and very little (if any) fat and lactose.
Drying of whey • Preheating • Concentration • Flash cooling • Precrystallization • Spray drying • Cooling in a vibrated fluid bed • Spray Drying without Crystallization Treatment
Whey Protein Coating • For whey coating for improving packaging material • Whey Protein Coating for Formulations & application methods for dry foods • Coating Formulations • Coating process conditions • Quality & Shelf life improvements
Further Research • Oxygen Coatings on food • Gloss Coatings on Sweets • Oxygen Barriers on plastics • Moisture Coatings on Plastics • Moisture Barriers on food • Anti-microbial coatings on cheese • Edible/biodegradeable films and containers
Medical Research • Whey Protein Concentrates-stimulate Cell-mediated & humoral immunity for neck and head cancer patients. • Several whey proteins display anti-microbial & antiviral activity
Production of Ethanol • Ethanol for use in alcoholicbeverages & fuel, is produced by fermentation of the Lactose Permeate from whey. • when certain species of yeast metabolize suger in the absence of oxygen, they produce ethanol and carbon dioxide.
Ethanol Manufacture-Carbery Group Ltd. • Whey permeate containing 4 percent lactose provides the sugar which is broken down into alcohol by lactose specific yeasts Kluyveromyces fragilis. using a continuous fermentation process • A Lactose stream produced during whey ultrafiltration is pumped into one of the eight fermentation vessels in the fermentation room
Yeast is added to each fermentation vessel at the beginning of vessel filling • Conditions in each fermentation vessel are set to enable the fast and efficient conversion of lactose to ethanol. • Conditions in each fermentation vessel are set to enable the fast and efficient conversion of lactose to ethanol.
The yeast is recovered at the end of the fermentation. • At the end of fermentation the ethanol level is between 3.5% v/v and 4.2% v/v. • Beer liquor is pumped to the beer wash column and the ethanol level is concentrated at 96% v/v
Alcohol Rectification • 3 stage distillation process which removes the smallest levels of impurities. • The 96% v/v ethanol feints is diluted with water and pumped into the extractive distillation column. • Congeneric compounds miscible in ethanol, but immiscible in water are removed • The main ethanol stream is pumped to the final rectification column to reconcentrate the ethanol and remove the remaining impurities in the spirit
This milestone marked the culmination of 3 years research to develop a yeast to efficiently convert lactose to ethanol. • After a painstaking selection procedure a strain of yeast from the Kluyveromyces fragili s family was successfully introduced to the Carbery Lactose fermentation process. • Production of ethanol has grown from over 2,500,000 litres alcohol in 1980 to over 8,000,000 litres currently.
Technology and Pollution Prevention • decomposition requires all the oxygen available in the water • dairies have disposed of large quantities of whey by spray-irrigating it over the fields 7 m3/ha/day. • Membrane technology is widely used in pollution prevention • Process/Operation • Water Purification • Waste Treatment
PM10The Irish EPA defines PM10 as particulate matter with a diameter of 10 micrometers collected with 50% efficiency by a PM10 sampling collection device. However, for convenience in this reference material, the term PM10 includes all particles having an aerodynamic diameter of less than or equal to 10 micrometers. • Fabric Filter A filtration device using one or more filterbags, sheets, or panels to remove particles from a gas stream.