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Environmental Management Systems on Dairy Farms. Idaho Association of Soil and Water Conservation Districts Cornell University University of Wisconsin-Madison. Dairy EMS. Idaho Jeanne Brittingham New York Peter Wright Wisconsin Brian Holmes. Dairy EMS. Flexibility Incentives

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Environmental Management Systems on Dairy Farms


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environmental management systems on dairy farms
Environmental Management Systems on Dairy Farms

Idaho Association of Soil and Water Conservation Districts

Cornell University

University of Wisconsin-Madison

dairy ems
Dairy EMS
  • Idaho
    • Jeanne Brittingham
  • New York
    • Peter Wright
  • Wisconsin
    • Brian Holmes
dairy ems4
Dairy EMS
  • Flexibility
  • Incentives
  • Resources
flexibility
Flexibility
  • Dairy Farms
    • Size
    • Management styles
    • Functional EMS
    • Environmental Issues
incentives
Incentives
  • Save Money
  • Reduce Costs
  • Environmental Image
      • Industry
      • Neighbors
  • Management concerns
resources
Resources
  • Time
  • Expertise
  • Management commitment
  • Costs
      • EMS development
      • Implementation
idaho dairy pilot project
IDAHO DAIRY PILOT PROJECT
  • A CONDENSED EMS APPROACHFOR SMALL AND MID-SIZED OPERATORS IN A REGULATED ENVIRONMENT
the regulatory context
THE REGULATORY CONTEXT
  • 1999: The Idaho Legislature gave regulatory authority over the dairy industry to the Idaho Department of Agriculture.
the regulatory context10
THE REGULATORY CONTEXT
  • 2001 The web-based OnePlan Comprehensive Nutrient Management Plan
  • 2003 The web-based OnePlan Comprehensive Planner
  • 2004 A Certificate of Sufficiency
a condensed and self directed ems approach
A CONDENSED AND SELF-DIRECTED EMS APPROACH
  • A 25-page condensed guidebook/workbook
  • 11 small and mid-sized operators

(65 to 400 milk cows)

  • Uncoached
  • Completed condensed EMSs in periods of up to five hours.
idaho stakeholders
Idaho Stakeholders
  • NRCS
  • Idaho Dept. of Environmental Quality
  • University of Idaho
  • Idaho Dept. of Ag.
  • Idaho Cattlemens Assoc.
  • Idaho Dairymen’s Assoc.
  • Idaho EPA
idaho findings
Idaho Findings
  • Conservation and Stewardship are not stand alone values
  • Identifying problems are difficult, solutions are available
  • Ability to revise plan is an asset
  • Need EMS to reduce environmental liability risk
  • Strong public relations value
diffusion of innovation analysis suggests
DIFFUSION OF INNOVATION ANALYSIS SUGGESTS
  • Positive compatibility with current values
  • Positive experience with trialabiltiy (revising their plan)
  • Positive experience with the condensed complexity of materials
  • Negative relative advantage in a regulated environment
  • No data for observability
operator decision factors identified from interviews
Stewardship

Future orientation

Environmental concerns

Solution options

Costs

Regulatory issues

Liability

Technical help

Information availability

Financial help

OPERATOR DECISION FACTORS IDENTIFIED FROM INTERVIEWS
lessons learned
LESSONS LEARNED
  • A self-directed approach with self-explanatory materials does not offer sufficient depth of understanding to demonstrate EMS advantages to small and mid-sized operators.
lessons learned17
LESSONS LEARNED
  • Without financial reward, there is little incentive for regulated operators to adopt an EMS approach.
future direction
FUTURE DIRECTION
  • A revised, less linear, EMS approach for small and mid-sized operators
new york pilot program
New York Pilot Program
  • PRO-DAIRY Management
  • Agricultural Environmental Management (AEM)
  • 5 pilot farms
  • Agricultural Consultants
ems management schemes
EMS Management Schemes
  • PRO-DAIRY
  • AEM
  • NRCS Planning
  • ISO14001
  • Others
pro dairy management
PRO-DAIRY Management
  • Planning
  • Organizing
  • Controlling
  • Directing
  • Staffing
  • Framework for study and improvement of management skills
pro dairy management23
Feeding

Milk Quality

Heifers

Forage

Manure/Nutrient

Finance

Intensive Grazing

Dairy Record

Reproductive

PRO-DAIRY Management

Management applied to:

EMS—Management applied to Environmental Impacts

agricultural environmental management aem
Agricultural Environmental Management (AEM)
  • Tier I Collect Information
  • Tier II Assessment
  • Tier IIIA Specific Issue Plan
  • Tier IIIB CNMP
  • Tier IIIC Total Resource Management Plan
  • Tier IV Plan Implementation
  • Tier V Evaluation and Revision
agricultural environmental management aem25

Agricultural Environmental Management(AEM)

A roadmap of agricultural

environmental policies and programs in

New York State

slide26

Agricultural Environmental Management

Coordinate Funding

Coordinate Science & Policy

Framework for Planning

State & Local Teams

AEM Planner Certification

AEM Tiered Process

Education and Outreach

Water Quality Symposium

Planner Review

Tier I: Initial Questionnaire

AEM Workshops

Planner Certification

Tier II: On-farm Assessment

Tier IIIA: Simple Nutrient Management Plan

LPES for NYS

Planner Updates

AEM Web Site and List-serve

Tier IIIB: Comprehensive Nutrient Management Plan

Tier IIIC: Total Resource Management Plan (SWAPA+H)

Tier IV: Plan Implementation

Tier V: Evaluation

nrcs planning
Determine Objectives

Identify Problems

Inventory Resources

Analyze Resource Data

5. Formulate Alternatives

Evaluate Alternatives

Make Decisions

Implement Plan

Evaluate Plan

NRCS Planning
iso 14001 requirements
ISO 14001 Requirements
  • Policy
  • Planning
  • Implementation and Operation
  • Checking and Corrective Action
  • Management Review
international organization for standardization iso
International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
  • Worldwide federation of national standards bodies
  • American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
  • Global Recognition
slide30

9000:2000

6

TheSIX

SIGMA

WAY

Management “Programs”

General

Dairy Specific

DairyWorksTM

Dairy BTMBreakthrough Management

slide31

Dry Cow

Transition Cow

Dry Period

Transition

Metabolic Disorders

Systems as a gathering

of related processes

Reproduction

Health

Disease

Biosecurity

Genetic

Future

Ventilation

Reproduction

Genetic Selection

Air Quality

Physical Environment

Stall Design

Body Comfort

Environment:

Whole Cow

Stall Maintenance

Replacements

Enterprise

Cooling/Draft Protection

Thermoneutrality

Replacements

Age

Water quality/quantity

Availability

Stage

Manufacturing:

Cow Status

Forage Quality:

Relative Maturity

and Form

Feed Consumption

Inputs

Feeding

Quantity

*Lbs. Milk

per cow

Nutritive Value

Concentrate:

Quality, Quantity and

Complement to Forages

Timeliness

Harvest

Salable

Milk

…and never forget the most important system of all: People!

Effectiveness

Quality

*SCC

*SPC

Environment:

Udder

Milk Harvest/Quality

Customer:

Processor

Customer:

Consumer

slide32

Hazards!

Biosecurity/Herd Health

Environmental Effect

Replacements

Physical Environments

Weanling Calves

Replacement Loop

Growing Heifers

Baby Calves

People

Poor Immunity

Disease

Slow Growth

Over Fattening

Failure to Breed

Breeding Heifers

Lactating Cows

Milk Fever

Ketosis

Retained Placenta

Displaced Abomasum

Metritis

Mastitis

Dystocia

Milk Fever

Ketosis

Retained Placenta

Displaced Abomasum

Metritis

Mastitis

Hazards! 

Fresh

Early Lactation

Insufficient Intake

Inadequate Peaks

Acidosis

Excess BW Loss

Mastitis

Big Bred Heifers

Genetic Future

Close-up/Transition

Reproduction

Breeding Window

Feeding

Milk Production Cycle

Transition Cows

Involution

+ or - BW

Mastitis

Milk Harvest/Quality

Weak/No Heats

Poor Conception

Mid Lactation

Early Dry

Poor Persistency

Low BW Gains

Excess BW Gain

“Dry Down”

Mastitis

Poor Persistency

Low BW Gains

Mastitis

Late Lactation

Dry Cows

Dairy Production Systems

partnerships for livestock ems
Partnerships for Livestock EMS
  • Organize a support system to reduce impacts on environment
    • Involve Stakeholders
    • Develop Tools
    • Pilot projects
    • Evaluate Results
    • Propagate Results
partnerships for livestock ems34
Partnerships for Livestock EMS

Involve Stakeholders:

NY Agricultural Environmental Management (AEM)

  • Ag & Markets
  • Farm Bureau
  • Dairy Producers
  • Dept. of Environmental Conservation
  • NRCS
  • Cooperative Extension
  • SWCD
dairy ems pilot
Dairy EMS Pilot
  • Assessment Tools – AEM
    • Environmental Stewardship Goals
    • Farm Nutrient Balance
    • Farmstead Facilities, Manure Related Concerns
    • Farmstead Facilities, Other Concerns
    • Manure Storage
    • Range and Pasture Management
develop tools
Develop Tools
  • Dairified Assessment worksheets
  • Farmstead Facilities, Other Concerns
  • AEM Livestock odor management
  • Guidebook
  • Tactical planning
pilot projects
Pilot projects
  • NY AEM
  • over 6,000 farms through assessment
  • over 1,000 farms through planning
  • Implementation over 1,000 farms
  • 5 farms for full EMS process
pilot projects38
Pilot projects
  • 5 farms for full EMS process
    • Progressive managers
    • CAFO plans
    • Certified planner
    • Experience with consultants
    • 100% acceptance
miner institute
Miner Institute
  • Experimental Farm
  • Farm manager
  • Policy statement
  • Assessment (done by CAFO)
  • Principles
  • 5 different objectives:
    • Odors, Appearance, Solid manure storage, Nutrient pollution, Manure application
hemdale farms
Hemdale Farms
  • Also vegetable grower
  • Supplier demanded ISO 14001
  • Consultant
  • Quality control and assurance
    • Pathogens, manure spreading nutrient management
aurora dairy
Aurora Dairy
  • Policy statement
  • Objectives
    • Odor control and pollution prevention
  • Tactical plan for:
    • Silage leachate
    • Anaerobic digestion
ez acres
EZ Acres
  • Involved processor and community in policy formation
  • Objectives
    • Nutrient control
    • Drinking water protection
  • Tactical plan
    • Manure storage
willet dairy
Willet Dairy
  • Policy statement
    • Community acceptance
    • Employee education
  • Objectives:
    • Odor and Water Quality
  • Tactical plan for CAFO implementation
    • Develop written SOP’s
pro dairy management44
PRO-DAIRY Management
  • Tactical plans:
    • Steps needed to accomplish a goal
    • Translates decisions into actions
    • Where you are  Where you want to be
  • Tactical plans:
    • What must be done ? How will it be done?
    • Who will do it ? When will it be done?
ems and agricultural consultants
EMS and Agricultural Consultants
  • Seminar
  • Public and Private
  • Need to take the CAFO plan to the next step
  • Commitment of time and effort
ems advantages
EMS Advantages
  • Improve environmental performance beyond compliance
  • Prevent pollution
  • Involve the whole organization
  • Improve efficiencies
  • Public relations
  • Meet customer requirements
dairy pilot results
Dairy Pilot Results
  • Working model of EMS process
  • Farms with EMS
  • Consultant interest
  • Evaluation
  • Perhaps a system that moves the dairy industry forward
wisconsin dairy environmental management systems pilot project
Wisconsin Dairy Environmental Management Systems Pilot Project

Brian Holmes, Biological Systems Engineering

Karl Hakanson, Environmental Resources Center

Janice Kepka, Environmental Resources Center

slide50

Wisconsin

The Badger State

77,000 farms

on

15,900,000 acres

slide51

~ 16,764 dairy farms w/1,256,000 dairy cows that average

17,728 lbs. milk/cow

and 74 cows/farm

-- 34,000 dairy farms in 1990 --

#1 cheese production

#2 milk production

~ 80 Dairy CAFOs

~ 120 CAFOs Total

slide52

Wisconsin Delivery Approaches

  • Work with agricultural and environmental interests to develop and promote AgEMS
  • Develop and test web-based environmental self-assessment tools
slide53

Wisconsin Delivery Approaches

  • Develop EMS Guidebook & related materials
  • Coach EMS pilots on dairy farms and UW Agricultural Research Stations
  • Farmer organized AgEMS class in Lake Michigan watershed
slide54

Wisconsin AgEMS Partners

Broad support from agricultural & environmental interests

Dairy Business Association

Dairy Quality Assurance Center

Farm Credit Services

Trout Unlimited

USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service

UW Cooperative Extension Service

WI Dept. of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer

Protection

WI Dept. of Natural Resources

Wisconsin Milk Marketing Board

slide55

Environmental Management System

Guidebook

for Wisconsin Farms

A self-directed process of continual improvement through

commitment to environmental stewardship & business efficiency.

  • AgEMS Guidebook
  • - Worksheets & templates
  • - Comprehensive Environmental Assessment Resources
  • Functional approach
  • Performance-based
  • - Farmer-friendly
slide57

Results

On-line assessments tools:

What we learned...

Farmers & educators are looking for ways to ID

environmental issues

Software & hardware complications (and consent

forms for research) hinder use

Useful tools need to be understandable,

comprehensive & flexible

May need assistance (vs self-assessment);

assessments prompt more questions

slide58

Results

Comprehensive AgEMS guidebook

What we learned...

Management systems thinking is not common

Important concepts cannot be explained in two pages,

i.e., the details are important

slide59

Results

Developed EMSs on two large dairies & two UW agricultural research stations

What we learned...

Farmers can readily ID many environmental issues and

are eager to solve problems

Farmers like an “expert’s” eye to ID problems

and make recommendations

It takes what farmers have the least of: time

slide60

Results

Insurance premium reductions

if EMS used

What we learned...

We need more tangible benefits like this!

Risk reduction is one aspect of

environmental management

Unregulated farms need other incentives

slide61

Results

State-wide understanding, interest

and support

What we learned...

It takes time for people to realize an EMS is not

just assessments and/or BMPs

People are ready to move beyond “command

and control”

It is vital for the agricultural and environmental

communities to work together

slide62

Results

WI DNR collaboration

What we learned...

Parts of the State’s regulatory authority wants to

move beyond simple compliance and believes

the EMS concept can play a key role

Other parts of the agency are not supportive

slide63

The Mind

The Most Important Farm “Technology“