Environmental Management Systems on Dairy Farms. Idaho Association of Soil and Water Conservation Districts Cornell University University of Wisconsin-Madison. Dairy EMS. Idaho Jeanne Brittingham New York Peter Wright Wisconsin Brian Holmes. Dairy EMS. Flexibility Incentives
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Environmental Management Systems on Dairy Farms Idaho Association of Soil and Water Conservation Districts Cornell University University of Wisconsin-Madison
Dairy EMS • Idaho • Jeanne Brittingham • New York • Peter Wright • Wisconsin • Brian Holmes
Dairy EMS • Flexibility • Incentives • Resources
Flexibility • Dairy Farms • Size • Management styles • Functional EMS • Environmental Issues
Incentives • Save Money • Reduce Costs • Environmental Image • Industry • Neighbors • Management concerns
Resources • Time • Expertise • Management commitment • Costs • EMS development • Implementation
IDAHO DAIRY PILOT PROJECT • A CONDENSED EMS APPROACHFOR SMALL AND MID-SIZED OPERATORS IN A REGULATED ENVIRONMENT
THE REGULATORY CONTEXT • 1999: The Idaho Legislature gave regulatory authority over the dairy industry to the Idaho Department of Agriculture.
THE REGULATORY CONTEXT • 2001 The web-based OnePlan Comprehensive Nutrient Management Plan • 2003 The web-based OnePlan Comprehensive Planner • 2004 A Certificate of Sufficiency
A CONDENSED AND SELF-DIRECTED EMS APPROACH • A 25-page condensed guidebook/workbook • 11 small and mid-sized operators (65 to 400 milk cows) • Uncoached • Completed condensed EMSs in periods of up to five hours.
Idaho Stakeholders • NRCS • Idaho Dept. of Environmental Quality • University of Idaho • Idaho Dept. of Ag. • Idaho Cattlemens Assoc. • Idaho Dairymen’s Assoc. • Idaho EPA
Idaho Findings • Conservation and Stewardship are not stand alone values • Identifying problems are difficult, solutions are available • Ability to revise plan is an asset • Need EMS to reduce environmental liability risk • Strong public relations value
DIFFUSION OF INNOVATION ANALYSIS SUGGESTS • Positive compatibility with current values • Positive experience with trialabiltiy (revising their plan) • Positive experience with the condensed complexity of materials • Negative relative advantage in a regulated environment • No data for observability
Stewardship Future orientation Environmental concerns Solution options Costs Regulatory issues Liability Technical help Information availability Financial help OPERATOR DECISION FACTORS IDENTIFIED FROM INTERVIEWS
LESSONS LEARNED • A self-directed approach with self-explanatory materials does not offer sufficient depth of understanding to demonstrate EMS advantages to small and mid-sized operators.
LESSONS LEARNED • Without financial reward, there is little incentive for regulated operators to adopt an EMS approach.
FUTURE DIRECTION • A revised, less linear, EMS approach for small and mid-sized operators
New York Pilot Program • PRO-DAIRY Management • Agricultural Environmental Management (AEM) • 5 pilot farms • Agricultural Consultants
EMS Management Schemes • PRO-DAIRY • AEM • NRCS Planning • ISO14001 • Others
PRO-DAIRY Management • Planning • Organizing • Controlling • Directing • Staffing • Framework for study and improvement of management skills
Feeding Milk Quality Heifers Forage Manure/Nutrient Finance Intensive Grazing Dairy Record Reproductive PRO-DAIRY Management Management applied to: EMS—Management applied to Environmental Impacts
Agricultural Environmental Management (AEM) • Tier I Collect Information • Tier II Assessment • Tier IIIA Specific Issue Plan • Tier IIIB CNMP • Tier IIIC Total Resource Management Plan • Tier IV Plan Implementation • Tier V Evaluation and Revision
Agricultural Environmental Management(AEM) A roadmap of agricultural environmental policies and programs in New York State
Agricultural Environmental Management Coordinate Funding Coordinate Science & Policy Framework for Planning State & Local Teams AEM Planner Certification AEM Tiered Process Education and Outreach Water Quality Symposium Planner Review Tier I: Initial Questionnaire AEM Workshops Planner Certification Tier II: On-farm Assessment Tier IIIA: Simple Nutrient Management Plan LPES for NYS Planner Updates AEM Web Site and List-serve Tier IIIB: Comprehensive Nutrient Management Plan Tier IIIC: Total Resource Management Plan (SWAPA+H) Tier IV: Plan Implementation Tier V: Evaluation
Determine Objectives Identify Problems Inventory Resources Analyze Resource Data 5. Formulate Alternatives Evaluate Alternatives Make Decisions Implement Plan Evaluate Plan NRCS Planning
ISO 14001 Requirements • Policy • Planning • Implementation and Operation • Checking and Corrective Action • Management Review
International Organization for Standardization (ISO) • Worldwide federation of national standards bodies • American National Standards Institute (ANSI) • Global Recognition
9000:2000 6 TheSIX SIGMA WAY Management “Programs” General Dairy Specific DairyWorksTM Dairy BTMBreakthrough Management
Dry Cow Transition Cow Dry Period Transition Metabolic Disorders Systems as a gathering of related processes Reproduction Health Disease Biosecurity Genetic Future Ventilation Reproduction Genetic Selection Air Quality Physical Environment Stall Design Body Comfort Environment: Whole Cow Stall Maintenance Replacements Enterprise Cooling/Draft Protection Thermoneutrality Replacements Age Water quality/quantity Availability Stage Manufacturing: Cow Status Forage Quality: Relative Maturity and Form Feed Consumption Inputs Feeding Quantity *Lbs. Milk per cow Nutritive Value Concentrate: Quality, Quantity and Complement to Forages Timeliness Harvest Salable Milk …and never forget the most important system of all: People! Effectiveness Quality *SCC *SPC Environment: Udder Milk Harvest/Quality Customer: Processor Customer: Consumer
Hazards! Biosecurity/Herd Health Environmental Effect Replacements Physical Environments Weanling Calves Replacement Loop Growing Heifers Baby Calves People Poor Immunity Disease Slow Growth Over Fattening Failure to Breed Breeding Heifers Lactating Cows Milk Fever Ketosis Retained Placenta Displaced Abomasum Metritis Mastitis Dystocia Milk Fever Ketosis Retained Placenta Displaced Abomasum Metritis Mastitis Hazards! Fresh Early Lactation Insufficient Intake Inadequate Peaks Acidosis Excess BW Loss Mastitis Big Bred Heifers Genetic Future Close-up/Transition Reproduction Breeding Window Feeding Milk Production Cycle Transition Cows Involution + or - BW Mastitis Milk Harvest/Quality Weak/No Heats Poor Conception Mid Lactation Early Dry Poor Persistency Low BW Gains Excess BW Gain “Dry Down” Mastitis Poor Persistency Low BW Gains Mastitis Late Lactation Dry Cows Dairy Production Systems
Partnerships for Livestock EMS • Organize a support system to reduce impacts on environment • Involve Stakeholders • Develop Tools • Pilot projects • Evaluate Results • Propagate Results
Partnerships for Livestock EMS Involve Stakeholders: NY Agricultural Environmental Management (AEM) • Ag & Markets • Farm Bureau • Dairy Producers • Dept. of Environmental Conservation • NRCS • Cooperative Extension • SWCD
Dairy EMS Pilot • Assessment Tools – AEM • Environmental Stewardship Goals • Farm Nutrient Balance • Farmstead Facilities, Manure Related Concerns • Farmstead Facilities, Other Concerns • Manure Storage • Range and Pasture Management
Develop Tools • Dairified Assessment worksheets • Farmstead Facilities, Other Concerns • AEM Livestock odor management • Guidebook • Tactical planning
Pilot projects • NY AEM • over 6,000 farms through assessment • over 1,000 farms through planning • Implementation over 1,000 farms • 5 farms for full EMS process
Pilot projects • 5 farms for full EMS process • Progressive managers • CAFO plans • Certified planner • Experience with consultants • 100% acceptance
Miner Institute • Experimental Farm • Farm manager • Policy statement • Assessment (done by CAFO) • Principles • 5 different objectives: • Odors, Appearance, Solid manure storage, Nutrient pollution, Manure application
Hemdale Farms • Also vegetable grower • Supplier demanded ISO 14001 • Consultant • Quality control and assurance • Pathogens, manure spreading nutrient management
Aurora Dairy • Policy statement • Objectives • Odor control and pollution prevention • Tactical plan for: • Silage leachate • Anaerobic digestion
EZ Acres • Involved processor and community in policy formation • Objectives • Nutrient control • Drinking water protection • Tactical plan • Manure storage
Willet Dairy • Policy statement • Community acceptance • Employee education • Objectives: • Odor and Water Quality • Tactical plan for CAFO implementation • Develop written SOP’s
PRO-DAIRY Management • Tactical plans: • Steps needed to accomplish a goal • Translates decisions into actions • Where you are Where you want to be • Tactical plans: • What must be done ? How will it be done? • Who will do it ? When will it be done?
EMS and Agricultural Consultants • Seminar • Public and Private • Need to take the CAFO plan to the next step • Commitment of time and effort
EMS Advantages • Improve environmental performance beyond compliance • Prevent pollution • Involve the whole organization • Improve efficiencies • Public relations • Meet customer requirements
Dairy Pilot Results • Working model of EMS process • Farms with EMS • Consultant interest • Evaluation • Perhaps a system that moves the dairy industry forward
Wisconsin Dairy Environmental Management Systems Pilot Project Brian Holmes, Biological Systems Engineering Karl Hakanson, Environmental Resources Center Janice Kepka, Environmental Resources Center
Wisconsin The Badger State 77,000 farms on 15,900,000 acres