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Introduction to Tickborne Diseases. Rachel Radcliffe, DVM, MPH CDC Career Epidemiology Field Officer Division of Infectious Disease Epidemiology. Overview of Tickborne Diseases. Introduction Lyme disease Tickborne rickettsial diseases Babesiosis Prevention of tickborne diseases

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introduction to tickborne diseases

Introduction to Tickborne Diseases

Rachel Radcliffe, DVM, MPH

CDC Career Epidemiology Field Officer

Division of Infectious Disease Epidemiology

overview of tickborne diseases
Overview of Tickborne Diseases
  • Introduction
  • Lyme disease
  • Tickborne rickettsial diseases
  • Babesiosis
  • Prevention of tickborne diseases
  • Case ascertainment exercise
tickborne diseases
Tickborne Diseases
  • Diseases spread by bites from infected ticks
  • Can be caused by bacteria, viruses, and parasites
  • Most infections occur in the spring and summer months
  • Geographic distribution of tick species impacts location of human infections
tick life cycle
Tick Life Cycle
  • Hard ticks have four life stages
    • Egg
    • Six-legged larvae
    • Eight-legged nymph
    • Adult
  • Most ticks prefer to feed on different hosts at each life stage
  • Ticks can feed on mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians
symptoms of tickborne diseases
Symptoms of Tickborne Diseases
  • Many diseases produce similar symptoms
  • Asymptomatic or mild to life-threatening illness
  • Most common symptoms
    • Fever/chills
    • Aches and pains
    • Rash
      • Proportion of people with rash varies among diseases
      • Distinctive rash appearance among diseases
treatment of tickborne diseases
Treatment of Tickborne Diseases
  • Supportive therapy
  • Antibiotic therapy for bacterial tickborne diseases
    • Doxycycline commonly used
    • Duration of therapy varies by disease
diagnosis of tickborne diseases
Diagnosis of Tickborne Diseases
  • Can be difficult to diagnose
  • Clinical signs and symptoms
  • Patient history
    • Tick bite or tick exposure
  • Laboratory findings
  • Diagnostic tests
    • Serology
    • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
    • Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
    • Culture
tickborne diseases in the united states
Tickborne Diseases in the United States
  • Lyme disease
  • Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
  • Other Spotted Fevers
  • Ehrlichiosis
  • Anaplasmosis
  • Babesiosis
  • STARI
  • Powassan
  • Tularemia
  • Others
lyme disease
Lyme Disease
  • Most common tickborne disease in US
  • Bacterial disease
    • Borrelia burgdorferi
  • Transmitted by blacklegged tick and western blacklegged tick
rocky mountain spotted fever and other spotted fevers
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever and Other Spotted Fevers
  • Bacterial diseases
    • Rickettsia rickettsii
    • Rickettsia parkeri
    • Rickettsia phillipi (proposed)
  • Transmitted by American dog tick, Rocky Mountain wood tick, brown dog tick, Pacific coast tick, and Gulf coast tick
ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis
Ehrlichiosis and Anaplasmosis
  • Bacterial diseases
    • Ehrlichia chaffeensis
    • Ehrlichia ewingii
    • Anaplasma phagocytophilum
  • Transmitted by blacklegged tick, lone star tick, and western blacklegged tick
babesiosis
Babesiosis
  • Caused by parasites that infect red blood cells
    • Species found to infect humans include Babesia microti, B. divergens, and B. duncani
  • Transmitted by blacklegged tick
  • Less commonly congenital transmission and blood donor-associated cases have been identified
stari southern tick associated rash illness
STARI (Southern Tick Associated Rash Illness)
  • Cause is unknown
  • Rash appearance similar to Lyme disease
  • Has not been linked to arthritic, neurologic, or chronic symptoms
  • Transmitted by lone star tick
  • Most cases found in southeastern US
powassan
Powassan
  • Arbovirus
  • Causes encephalitis
  • Most cases in northern US
  • Transmitted by blacklegged tick and a related tick, Ixodes cookei
tularemia
Tularemia
  • Less common tickborne disease
  • Bacterial disease
    • Francisella tularensis
  • Transmitted by American dog tick, lone star tick, and Rocky Mountain wood tick
  • Other transmission routes include deer fly bites, inhalation, ingestion, skin contact with infected animals
  • Cases found in every state except Hawaii
other tickborne diseases
Other Tickborne Diseases
  • Tickborne relapsing fever
  • Colorado tick fever
  • Tickborne diseases abroad
    • Tickborne encephalitis
    • Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever
summary
Summary
  • Numerous tickborne diseases can infect humans and cause disease
  • Several tick species transmit tickborne diseases
    • Found in various geographic regions
  • Symptoms can be similar among tickborne diseases
  • Diagnosis can be difficult
more information to come
More Information to Come…
  • Lyme disease
  • Tickborne Rickettsial diseases
    • Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
    • Ehrlichiosis
    • Anaplasmosis
  • Babesiosis
  • Prevention of tickborne diseases
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