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Introduction to Public Health Diseases. Classes of Diseases. Vector borne illnesses Water borne illnesses Directly communicable illnesses Occupational and environmental illnesses Chronic illnesses. Impact of Diseases. Deaths in war

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Presentation Transcript
classes of diseases
Classes of Diseases
  • Vector borne illnesses
  • Water borne illnesses
  • Directly communicable illnesses
  • Occupational and environmental illnesses
  • Chronic illnesses
impact of diseases
Impact of Diseases
  • Deaths in war
    • World War I was the first war where wounds killed more people than illness
  • Life expectancy
    • Early deaths count more
    • That is why it is hard to raise it once you get to 75
    • Communicable diseases keep the life expectancy low
    • Diarrheal diseases are the biggest killer of children worldwide
disease agents
Disease agents
  • Living
    • parasites
    • spirochetes
    • amoebas
    • bacteria
    • virus
  • Environmental and Occupational
    • Asbestosis
    • Arsenic
mosquito borne examples
Mosquito borne - Examples
  • malaria
    • spirochetes
  • yellow fever
    • virus
  • West Nile, St. Louis Encephalitis, etc.
    • virus
  • Dengue fever - bone break fever
    • virus
  • Why is mosquito borne illness consistent with a miasma?
ticks fleas bedbugs examples
Ticks, Fleas, Bedbugs - Examples
  • Lyme
    • spirochetes
    • deer ticks
  • Typhus
    • Bacteria
    • fleas - rats and other carriers
  • Bubonic plague
    • bacteria
    • fleas, then direct human
  • Ehrlichiosis
    • Bacteria
    • Ticks
other agents
Other agents
  • Schistosomiasis (Aka: Bilharziasis)
    • Flukes
    • Intermediate host - snail
    • Potentiated by the Aswan Dam
  • Trypanosomiasis
    • African: Sleeping sickness (Tsetse flies
    • American: Chagas Disease (Reduviid bugs)
incidental transmission
Incidental Transmission
  • Polio
    • virus
    • fecal-oral transmission
  • Flies
    • get the virus on their feet when sitting on shit
    • carry the virus to food
  • How do you control flies?
  • Legal issues?
transmission and control of vector borne illnesses
Transmission and Control of Vector Borne Illnesses
  • Usual model is that the mosquito carries the illness from an animal reservoir
    • can you control the animal?
    • can you eradicate the animal?
  • Vector
    • Can you control the vector?
  • Human behavior
    • Can you avoid contact with the vector?
  • Treatment
    • Can you treat the illness?
malaria control 1 debilitating infectious disease
Malaria Control - - #1 debilitating infectious disease
  • The reservoir is human
    • Why is this a special problem?
  • Treatment
    • spirochete develops resistance
    • requires long term treatment
  • Mosquito control
    • drain the swamps
    • spray
  • Avoidance
    • repellant
    • bed nets
  • Legal Issues?
water borne illness
Water Borne Illness
  • Cholera
    • bacterium Vibrio cholerae
    • endotoxin - shuts down water reabsorption
  • Typhoid
    • Salmonella Typhi
    • human reservoir
  • Both fecal-oral
    • environmental and direct human spread
controlling water borne illness
Controlling Water Borne Illness
  • Waste water management
    • Treatment
    • Disposal to avoid cross contamination
    • Oysters, any one?
  • Drinking water treatment
    • Chlorination
    • Making sure you only get treated water
  • Vaccinations
    • Limited value
  • Legal issues?