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1. Introduction to research methods. 3: Validity types. Foundations of research. Validity the best available approximation to the truth* of a given proposition, inference, or conclusion (*allows for criticism –this is where we come in)

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foundations of research
Foundations of research
  • Validity
    • the best available approximation to the truth* of a given proposition, inference, or conclusion

(*allows for criticism –this is where we come in)

    • What you wish to say within a study (& therefore the kinds of validity you are going to claim) depends on the type of study you are conducting


foundations of research2
Foundations of research
  • Validity






foundations of research3
Foundations of research
  • Validity
    • For each validity type there are typical threats, and ways to reduce them (we deal with these in later weeks)
    • This gives us a framework within which to critique the overall validity of our (or any other) study


foundations of research4
Foundations of research
  • Ethics
    • Protect participants vs. Deprive others of knowledge
    • A tricky balance
    • One problem is that we are notoriously untrustworthy as a species (see Milgram, Tuskagee, Stanford prison experiments on web), suggesting the need for strong ethical procedures
    • Another is that strong ethical procedures can deprive individuals of free will


foundations of research5
Foundations of research
  • Ethics
    • Institutional Review Boards
    • Informed Consent
      • these are the ways we currently constrain our practices to keep them “ethical”


foundations of research6
Foundations of research
  • Conceptualizing research
    • How do you get started/develop and idea/formulate a research plan/conceptualize and area of research?
      • All this is really for those who wish to conduct research
      • For now, I’d rather focus on a framework for understanding and critiquing the research that already exists – we’ll get to the doing stage if time allows (for now, assume that the tried and tested method of asking a faculty member for a question is the best method)