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The European Exploration and Conquest. The 3 “G”s GOLD-money was the great motivation GOD-later missionaries to convert the natives GLORY-personal fame and hopefully fortune But they still needed inventions to help them travel across the seas…. Motivations for Exploration.

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motivations for exploration
The 3 “G”s

GOLD-money was the great motivation

GOD-later missionaries to convert the natives

GLORY-personal fame and hopefully fortune

But they still needed inventions to help them travel across the seas…

Motivations for Exploration
The Caravel: major transportation vessel. Allowed for huge cargoes to be moved around the world.New sails, compass, and sextant
Portugal began the era of exploration, led by Henry the Navigator. (he never went anywhere, just paid for the voyages)Why Portugal?

Led by first Dias then DaGama Portugal explored the coast of Africa.Why?DaGama was first European to round Cape Of Good Hope and travel to India by sea


The Treaty of Tordesillas, 1494 & 1495

The Pope’s Line of Demarcation

arab slave trade
Arab Slave Trade
  • ~11 to 18 million Black Africans were enslaved by Arab slave traders and taken across the Red Sea, Indian Ocean, and Sahara Desert between 650 and 1900
  • Slavery not a “European” idea
  • Used as sex slaves, domestic servants/nannies
  • Creates “slave economy” in Africa.
olaudah equiano

“…The closeness of the place, and the heat of the climate, added to the number in the ship, which was so crowded that each had scarcely room to turn himself, almost suffocated us. This produced copious perspirations, so that the air soon became unfit for respiration, from a variety of loathsome smells, and brought on a sickness among the slaves, of which many died… …The shrieks of the women, and the groans of the dying, rendered the whole a scene of horror almost inconceivable.”

MAIN IDEAMercantilism


1. Get as much gold and silveras you can.

2. Establish a favorable balance of trade.

3. Get colonies.

The economy and trade are essential to the health and safety of the nation.

Colonies exist to benefit the parent country

impact on africa
Impact on Africa
  • We cannot reckon how great the damage is, since the merchants daily seize our subjects, sons of the land and sons of our noblemen, vassals and relatives ... and cause them to be sold; and so great, Sir, is their corruption and licentiousness that our country is being utterly depopulated.—Affonso I, in a letter to King John of Portugal, 1526
  • Tribal rivalries increased
  • European “theft” of African resources
dutch expansion
Dutch Expansion
  • Masters of the “carrying trade” (lowest shipping rates in Europe).
  • Development of Joint Stock Company
    • Dutch East India Company
    • Interested in trade not religion / conversion!!
  • The Tulip bulb became a massive source of wealth

Goods allegedly exchanged for a single bulb of the Viceroy

  • Two lasts of wheat 448ƒ
    • A last = 100lbs net weight.
  • Four lasts of rye 558ƒ
  • Four fat oxen 480ƒ
  • Eight fat swine 240ƒ
  • Twelve fat sheep 120ƒ
  • Two hogsheads of wine 70ƒ
    • Commonly, a hogshead = 63 gals
  • Four tuns of beer 32ƒ
    • Commonly, a tun = 252 gals. That's 15 kegs per tun,
  • Two tons of butter 192ƒ
  • 1,000 lb. of cheese 120ƒ
  • A complete bed 100ƒ
  • A suit of clothes 80ƒ
  • A silver drinking cup 60ƒ

Total 2500ƒ

A skilled laborer might earn 150 florins a year

downfall of mughal india
Downfall of Mughal India
  • Thriving culture in India.
  • Most famous Mughal landmark
      • TajMahal
  • Had trade monopoly
    • Allowed Europeans free access.
  • Lack of tolerance for Hinduism
  • Tried to conquer all of India.
    • Too big – military stretched too thin.
  • European expansion into India
ming china
Ming China
  • Chinese Porcelain was new product in high demand along with silks and spices
    • Who controlled trade? Europe or

China? What support is there?

  • Canton was the only port open to


  • Jesuits tries to convert Asians.

Their education helped, China liked

New ideas.

manchu qing dynasty
Manchu / Qing Dynasty
  • Adopted Confucian ideals
    • Strict order to society based on relationships.
    • As long as relationships were proper, society thrived
    • Women second class / subordinate
    • Supported foot binding (see shoes)
  • Still controlled trade with Europe
    • Europeans tried to control their losses by negotiating – Lord McCartney
    • FAILED
  • China failed to see potential of European power and suffers in the 19th century.
korea and japan
Korea and Japan
  • Korea invaded by both China and Japan.
    • Culture becomes a blend.
  • Korea isolates itself – Hermit Kingdom
  • Japan too tried to isolate itself from European influence
    • Jesuits converted many but were forced out by the Tokogawa Shogun and Japanese ruling classes known as Daimyo.
    • Only the Dutch were allowed in – Why?
    • Not religious – only interested in trade and knowledge!