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  1. Biomechanics: An Introduction Songning Zhang, Ph.D. Biomechanics/Sports Medicine Lab The University of Tennessee, USA

  2. Selected Topic Areas • Movement Analysis • Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation • Industrial Applications • Entertainment Applications

  3. Movement Analysis/ • Sports performance • Enhancement • Skill improvement • Other applications • Footwear biomechanics • Gait analysis

  4. Movement Analysis

  5. Movement Analysis Video Video

  6. Footwear Biomechanics • In 1960s, running – most popular sport • Injuries: common in runners • Running footwear • Popular research topics since 1970s

  7. Shoe Structures

  8. Material Testing • Force platform • Coefficient of friction • Shoes on diff. surfaces • Where • Fz – vertical force • Fy – A/P force

  9. Footwear Biomechanics • Mechanical factors • Thickness of shoe soles • Wear • Midsole mechanical properties • Other design issues • Heel counter • Flare • Studies in footwear • Material testing • Lab biomechanical subject testing

  10. Footwear Biomechanics • Comfort and cushion: most important factors for footwear in sport activities (Nigg 1999) • Plantar pressure shown to be a good indicator of comfort (Chen & Nigg 1994) • Lack of plantar sensory input may provoke injuries, even in a well-cushioned shoe (Robbins 1991)

  11. Rationale • Perception of footwear: an important factor in selection of athletic footwear • Material testing • 500 miles running: 70% of impact absorption (Cook et al. 1985) • Tanaka et al. (2001) • A good correlation between footwear wear (outsole) and sensory evaluation

  12. Footwear Biomechanics • Lab testing • High-speed video/film • Force platform • And/or accelerometers • Plantar pressure measuring system • More often used

  13. Example

  14. Gait Analysis • Normal and pathological patterns • Return to normal gait patterns • One of the most basic but common tasks in rehabilitation/physical medicine • One of most studied areas

  15. Gait Biomechanics Video

  16. Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation • Sports and physical activities: very popular • Sports-related injuries very common • Orthopedics • Orthotics and Prosthetics • Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation

  17. Orthotists and Prosthetists

  18. Applications • In our lab - • Costo 1999: effects of ankle braces on walking biomechanics • Two types braces • Rodenback 2002: effectiveness of patellotendon brace and taping in landing biomechanics

  19. Other Applications • Knee braces • ACL injuries prevention • ACL injuries preventions (Devita 1992 & 1996)

  20. Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation (CD/Video)

  21. ACL Injuries and Reconstruction • Knee Joint Complex • Patellofemoral Joint • Tibiofemoral Joint • Tibiofibular Joint • Ligamentous Support • Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) • PCL, MCL & LCL

  22. ACL Functions • Resist anterior tibia translation • Resist medial/lateral rotation of tibia

  23. ACL Injury Survey • Basketball (Gray et al. 1985) • Female: ACL - 25% • Male: ACL - 3% • Volleyball (Ferretti et al. 1990) • 1978 to 1988, 40 cases • Female: 80% • 55% in competition

  24. ACL Injury Survey • 1990-93 NCAA (Hutchinson et al. 1995) • female greater rate of injury per 1000 exposures • gymnastics • 0.52 (F) Vs 0.17 (M) • soccer • 0.31 (F) Vs 0.13 (M) • basketball • 0.23 (F) Vs 0.06 (M)

  25. ACL Injury Survey • 1989-93 NCAA (Arendt & Dick 1995) • Rate of injury per 1000 exposures • Soccer • ACL: 0.31 (F) Vs 0.13 (M) • Basketball • ACL: 0.29 (F) Vs 0.07 (M)

  26. ACL Reconstructions

  27. ACL Reconstructions

  28. ACL Injury Mechanisms • Direct Contact • Anterior Tibial Translation • Posterior Femoral Translation • Rotational stress • Non-Contact • Deceleration and change of direction • Landing from a jump • Pivoting/twisting • Straight leg landing

  29. Industrial Applications Video Automobile Robotic Control

  30. Industrial Applications Vibration Analysis Ergonomics Process Control

  31. Entertainment Applications • Films • Television • Computer and video games

  32. Animation Facial Caption

  33. Animation

  34. Animation Video

  35. Video Games

  36. Movie/Television • Seamless and believable visual effects • Films • “Titanic“ • "Gladiator“ • "The Mummy Returns", • "Star Wars Episode 1 - the Phantom Menace” • Crowd Scenes • Stunt Work • Photorealistic foreground characters

  37. Topics • Brief history of Biomechanics • Current developments in Biomechanics • Other resources

  38. Ph.D. Biomechanics Programs (Hay 1978) • University of Illinois, Charles Dillman • Indiana University, John Cooper • University of Iowa, Louis Alley • University of Maryland, David Kelley • University of Massachusetts, Stanley Plagenhoef • University of Oregon, Barry Bates • Penn State University, Richard Nelson • Purdue University, Carol Widule • Washington State University, Marlene Adrian • University of Wisconsin, Elizabeth Robert

  39. International Society of Biomechanics (ISB) • Founded at Penn State University in 1973 • The goal is to promote the study of all areas of biomechanics at the international level, with special emphasis given to the biomechanics of Human Movement • Working Groups • Sport Biomechanics, Shoulder Biomechanics, Functional Footwear, 3-D Motion Analysis, Computer Simulation • Current President, Sandra Olney, Canada • More than 1,000 members

  40. Number Name Place, 1st , 1967 International Seminar on Biomechanics Zurich, Switzerland 2nd, 1970 International Seminar on Biomechanics Eindhoven, Netherlands International Seminar on Biomechanics Rome, Italy 3rd, 1971 4th, 1973 International Seminar on Biomechanics Penn State Univ., USA International Seminar on Biomechanics Penn State Univ., USA 1973 Founded 1975 Vth ISB Congress Jyvaskyla, Finland International Society of Biomechanics (ISB)

  41. American Society of Biomechanics (ASB) • ASB: founded in October 1977 • The purpose • provide a forum for the exchange of information and ideas among researchers in biomechanics • Annual conference: 1st in 1971 • Current president: Andrew Biewener, Harvard University, USA • More than 640 members

  42. American Society of Biomechanics (ASB)

  43. International Society of Biomechanics in Sport (ISBS) • Annual conference/symposia: 1st in 1982, San Diego, California, USA • The goal • learn and study human movement in general, and sports in particular of applied sports biomechanics • Current president: Eugene Brown, USA • Members: ?

  44. Year Name Place, 1978 Discussion International Society of Biomechanics in Sport Edmonton, Alberta, Canada 1982 Founded International Society of Biomechanics in Sport San Diego, USA 1st, 1983 Annual Symposium of ISBS San Diego, USA 2nd, 1984 Annual Symposium of ISBS Colorado Spring, USA Annual Symposium of ISBS Univ. of Northern Colorado, USA 4th, 1986 Annual Symposium of ISBS Dalhousie Univ., Nova Scotia International Society of Biomechanics in Sport (ISBS) 3rd, 1985

  45. International Society of Biomechanics in Sport (ISBS) • SYMPOSIUM XIX: 2001 San Francisco • SYMPOSIUM XVIII: 2000 Hong - Kong • SYMPOSIUM XVII: 1999 - PERTH, AUSTRALIA • SYMPOSIUM XVI: 1998 - KONSTANZ, GERMANY

  46. European Society of Biomechanics (ESB) • ESB: founded at a meeting of 20 scientists from 11 countries in Brussels on May 21, 1976 • The primary goal • To encourage, foster, promote and develop research, progress and information concerning the science of Biomechanics • Bi-annual General Meeting • The first scientific meeting, Brussels in1978 • Current president: G. Van der Perre, Belgium • > 300 members

  47. Canadian Society of Biomechanics (CSB) • CSB: formed in 1973 • The purpose • To foster research and the interchange of information on the biomechanics of human physical activity • Bi-annual conferences: 1st 1974, Edmonton, Canada • Every 6 years: NACOB – combined with ASB • Current president: François Prince, Canada • 82 members

  48. Year Name Place, Editor 1961 Electromyography and Clinical Neurophysiology Univ. of Louvain, Belgium Journal of Electromyography & Kinesiology U.K., Moshe Solomonow 1968 Journal of Biomechanics U.K., Huiskes & Brand 1985 Journal of Applied Biomechanics USA, Mark D. Grabiner Sports Biomechanics USA, ?? 1985 Clinical Biomechanics U.K., Burton Biomechanics Journals 1991 2002

  49. Other Journals • Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise • Journal of Biomechanical Engineering • Biomechanics - The Magazine of Lower Extremity Movement • American Journal of Sports Medicine • Motor Behavior • Human Movement Science • Journal of Human Movement Studies • Gait and Posture • Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery • Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness • The Orthopedic Clinics of North America • American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation