332:479 Concepts in VLSI Design Lecture 5 MIPS Processor Example - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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332:479 Concepts in VLSI Design Lecture 5 MIPS Processor Example

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  1. 332:479 Concepts in VLSIDesignLecture 5 MIPS Processor Example David Harris Harvey Mudd College Spring 2004

  2. Outline • Design Partitioning • MIPS Processor Example • Architecture • Microarchitecture • Logic Design • Circuit Design • Physical Design • Fabrication, Packaging, Testing • Summary Material from: CMOS VLSI Design, by Weste and Harris, Addison-Wesley, 2005 Concepts in VLSI Des. Lec. 5

  3. Coping with Complexity • How to design System-on-Chip? • Many millions (soon billions!) of transistors • Tens to hundreds of engineers • Structured Design • Design Partitioning Concepts in VLSI Des. Lec. 5

  4. Structured Design • Hierarchy: Divide and Conquer • Recursively system into modules • Regularity • Reuse modules wherever possible • Ex: Standard cell library • Modularity: well-formed interfaces • Allows modules to be treated as black boxes • Locality • Physical and temporal Concepts in VLSI Des. Lec. 5

  5. Abstraction Levels Synopsys Behavioral Simulation Synopsys Design Analyzer ARCHITECTURE & BEHAVIORAL REGISTER TRANSFER – Verilog/VHDL LOGIC SWITCH LEVEL CIRCUIT (TRANSISTORS) LAYOUT & TEST PATTERNS FABRICATION LINE Envisia Standard Cell Place-and- Route Cadence Verilog-XL Synopsys Logic Sim. Dracula Logic vs. Layout Assura Circuit Extractor SPICE and Cadence Spectre Spectral Test Pattern Gen. Cadence LayoutPlus SUPREM Concepts in VLSI Des. Lec. 5

  6. Design Partitioning • Architecture: User’s perspective, what does it do? • Instruction set, registers • MIPS, x86, Alpha, PIC, ARM, … • Microarchitecture • Single cycle, multcycle, pipelined, superscalar? • Logic: how are functional blocks constructed • Ripple carry, carry lookahead, carry select adders • Circuit: how are transistors used • Complementary CMOS, pass transistors, domino • Physical: chip layout • Datapaths, memories, random logic Concepts in VLSI Des. Lec. 5

  7. Gajski Y-Chart Concepts in VLSI Des. Lec. 5

  8. MIPS Architecture • Example: subset of MIPS processor architecture • Drawn from Patterson & Hennessy • MIPS is a 32-bit architecture with 32 registers • Consider 8-bit subset using 8-bit datapath • Only implement 8 registers ($0 - $7) • $0 hardwired to 00000000 • 8-bit program counter • You’ll build this processor in the labs • Illustrate the key concepts in VLSI design Concepts in VLSI Des. Lec. 5

  9. Instruction Set Concepts in VLSI Des. Lec. 5

  10. Instruction Encoding • 32-bit instruction encoding • Requires four cycles to fetch on 8-bit datapath Concepts in VLSI Des. Lec. 5

  11. Fibonacci (C) f0 = 1; f-1 = -1 fn = fn-1 + fn-2 f = 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, … Concepts in VLSI Des. Lec. 5

  12. Fibonacci (Assembly) • 1st statement: n = 8 • How do we translate this to assembly? Concepts in VLSI Des. Lec. 5

  13. Fibonacci (Assembly) Concepts in VLSI Des. Lec. 5

  14. Fibonacci (Binary) • 1st statement: addi $3, $0, 8 • How do we translate this to machine language? • Hint: use instruction encodings below Concepts in VLSI Des. Lec. 5

  15. Fibonacci (Binary) • Machine language program Concepts in VLSI Des. Lec. 5

  16. MIPS Microarchitecture • Multicycle marchitecture from Patterson & Hennessy Concepts in VLSI Des. Lec. 5

  17. Multicycle Controller Concepts in VLSI Des. Lec. 5

  18. Logic Design • Start at top level • Hierarchically decompose MIPS into units • Top-level interface Concepts in VLSI Des. Lec. 5

  19. Block Diagram Concepts in VLSI Des. Lec. 5

  20. Hierarchical Design Concepts in VLSI Des. Lec. 5

  21. HDLs • Hardware Description Languages • Widely used in logic design • Verilog and VHDL • Describe hardware using code • Document logic functions • Simulate logic before building • Synthesize code into gates and layout • Requires a library of standard cells Concepts in VLSI Des. Lec. 5

  22. Verilog Example module fulladder(input a, b, c, output s, cout); sum s1(a, b, c, s); carry c1(a, b, c, cout); endmodule module carry(input a, b, c, output cout) assign cout = (a&b) | (a&c) | (b&c); endmodule Concepts in VLSI Des. Lec. 5

  23. Circuit Design • How should logic be implemented? • NANDs and NORs vs. ANDs and ORs? • Fan-in and fan-out? • How wide should transistors be? • These choices affect speed, area, power • Logic synthesis makes these choices for you • Good enough for many applications • Hand-crafted circuits are still better Concepts in VLSI Des. Lec. 5

  24. Example: Carry Logic • assign cout = (a&b) | (a&c) | (b&c); Transistors? Gate Delays? Concepts in VLSI Des. Lec. 5

  25. Example: Carry Logic • assign cout = (a&b) | (a&c) | (b&c); Transistors? Gate Delays? Concepts in VLSI Des. Lec. 5

  26. Example: Carry Logic • assign cout = (a&b) | (a&c) | (b&c); Transistors? Gate Delays? Concepts in VLSI Des. Lec. 5

  27. Gate-Level Netlist module carry(input a, b, c, output cout) wire x, y, z; and g1(x, a, b); and g2(y, a, c); and g3(z, b, c); or g4(cout, x, y, z); endmodule Concepts in VLSI Des. Lec. 5

  28. Transistor-Level Netlist module carry(input a, b, c, output cout) wire i1, i2, i3, i4, cn; tranif1 n1(i1, 0, a); tranif1 n2(i1, 0, b); tranif1 n3(cn, i1, c); tranif1 n4(i2, 0, b); tranif1 n5(cn, i2, a); tranif0 p1(i3, 1, a); tranif0 p2(i3, 1, b); tranif0 p3(cn, i3, c); tranif0 p4(i4, 1, b); tranif0 p5(cn, i4, a); tranif1 n6(cout, 0, cn); tranif0 p6(cout, 1, cn); endmodule Concepts in VLSI Des. Lec. 5

  29. SPICE Netlist .SUBCKT CARRY A B C COUT VDD GND MN1 I1 A GND GND NMOS W=1U L=0.18U AD=0.3P AS=0.5P MN2 I1 B GND GND NMOS W=1U L=0.18U AD=0.3P AS=0.5P MN3 CN C I1 GND NMOS W=1U L=0.18U AD=0.5P AS=0.5P MN4 I2 B GND GND NMOS W=1U L=0.18U AD=0.15P AS=0.5P MN5 CN A I2 GND NMOS W=1U L=0.18U AD=0.5P AS=0.15P MP1 I3 A VDD VDD PMOS W=2U L=0.18U AD=0.6P AS=1 P MP2 I3 B VDD VDD PMOS W=2U L=0.18U AD=0.6P AS=1P MP3 CN C I3 VDD PMOS W=2U L=0.18U AD=1P AS=1P MP4 I4 B VDD VDD PMOS W=2U L=0.18U AD=0.3P AS=1P MP5 CN A I4 VDD PMOS W=2U L=0.18U AD=1P AS=0.3P MN6 COUT CN GND GND NMOS W=2U L=0.18U AD=1P AS=1P MP6 COUT CN VDD VDD PMOS W=4U L=0.18U AD=2P AS=2P CI1 I1 GND 2FF CI3 I3 GND 3FF CA A GND 4FF CB B GND 4FF CC C GND 2FF CCN CN GND 4FF CCOUT COUT GND 2FF .ENDS Concepts in VLSI Des. Lec. 5

  30. Physical Design • Floorplan • Standard cells • Place & route • Datapaths • Slice planning • Area estimation Concepts in VLSI Des. Lec. 5

  31. MIPS Floorplan Concepts in VLSI Des. Lec. 5

  32. MIPS Layout Concepts in VLSI Des. Lec. 5

  33. Standard Cells • Uniform cell height • Uniform well height • M1 VDD and GND rails • M2 Access to I/Os • Well / substrate taps • Exploits regularity Concepts in VLSI Des. Lec. 5

  34. Synthesized Controller • Synthesize HDL into gate-level netlist • Place & Route using standard cell library Concepts in VLSI Des. Lec. 5

  35. Pitch Matching • Synthesized controller area is mostly wires • Design is smaller if wires run through/over cells • Smaller = faster, lower power as well! • Design snap-together cells for datapaths and arrays • Plan wires into cells • Connect by abutment • Exploits locality • Takes lots of effort Concepts in VLSI Des. Lec. 5

  36. MIPS Datapath • 8-bit datapath built from 8 bitslices (regularity) • Zipper at top drives control signals to datapath Concepts in VLSI Des. Lec. 5

  37. Slice Plans • Slice plan for bitslice • Cell ordering, dimensions, wiring tracks • Arrange cells for wiring locality Concepts in VLSI Des. Lec. 5

  38. MIPS ALU • Arithmetic / Logic Unit is part of bitslice Concepts in VLSI Des. Lec. 5

  39. Area Estimation • Need area estimates to make floorplan • Compare to another block you already designed • Or estimate from transistor counts • Budget room for large wiring tracks • Your mileage may vary! Concepts in VLSI Des. Lec. 5

  40. Design Verification • Fabrication is slow & expensive • MOSIS 0.6mm: $1000, 3 months • State of art: $1M, 1 month • Debugging chips is very hard • Limited visibility into operation • Prove design is right before building! • Logic simulation • Ckt. simulation / formal verification • Layout vs. schematic comparison • Design & electrical rule checks • Verification is > 50% of effort on most chips! Concepts in VLSI Des. Lec. 5

  41. Technology CAD • Design Rule Checker • Electrical Rule Checker • Circuit Extraction from layout • Logic vs. layout check Concepts in VLSI Des. Lec. 5

  42. Fabrication & Packaging • Tapeout final layout • Fabrication • 6, 8, 12” wafers • Optimized for throughput, not latency (10 weeks!) • Cut into individual dice • Packaging • Bond gold wires from die I/O pads to package Concepts in VLSI Des. Lec. 5

  43. Testing • Test that chip operates • Design errors • Manufacturing errors • A single dust particle or wafer defect kills a die • Yields from 90% to < 10% • Depends on die size, maturity of process • Test each part before shipping to customer Concepts in VLSI Des. Lec. 5

  44. Summary • Design Partitioning • MIPS Processor Example • Architecture • Microarchitecture • Logic Design • Circuit Design • Physical Design • Fabrication, Packaging, Testing Concepts in VLSI Des. Lec. 5