Chapter 15 The Fervent of Reform and Culture in the Antebellum Era 1790-1860
Reviving Religion • “ All churches were set up to terrify and enslave mankind, and monopolize power and profit.” –Thomas Paine • Deism: Relied on reason, rather than revelation. • Believed in a Supreme Being who created knowable universe.
Unitarians • God existed in only one person. • Stressed the goodness in people, rejects trinity, predestination, and original sin
2nd Great Awakening, 1800 • Religious revival in the United States • Why did people lose religion? • Spread to the masses on the frontier by huge “camp meetings” • 25,000 people gathered &“received” religion. • Increased church membership & humanitarian reforms. • Widened class and region lines
Methodists & Baptists Grow • Personal conversion, rather than predestination. • Democratic control. • Methodist: “Circuit Riders” traveling frontier preachers.
Charles Finney: 1830-1831 • Preacher, led massive revivals. • Denounced alcohol and slavery.
“Burned Over District” • Western NY, “blistered” by sermons of hellfire and damnation • 1830s - Rise of Adventists, William Miller (Millerites) • Interpreted the Bible to mean that Christ would return to earth on October 22nd, 1844. • Jesus never showed……..
Regions & Classes • Less prosperous regions of S and W: Methodists & Baptists, swell from revival • Prosperous Eastern regions – little touched by revivalism • Wealthy and educated: Unitarianism, Episcopalian, Presbyterianism, and Congregationalism • Methodists and Baptists split in N & S over slavery, 1844-45, Presbyterians split in 1857 • Splitting of churches foreshadows states secession
Mormonism, 1830 • Joseph Smith: Book of Mormon and the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. • Ran into serious opposition. • Polygamy • Smith murdered in Illinois.
Brigham Young • Led the Mormon church to Salt Lake City, UT 1846-1847. • Federal government sends in troops, 1957 • Statehood delayed until1896 due to Mormon defiance
Free Education • Education historically was for the elite/wealthy class. • Tax-supported public education beginning 1825 • Imperfect • Ill-trained teachers. • Schools open for only a couple months out of the year. • Horace Mann advocated for education reform. • Higher pay • Expanded curriculum • Longer school terms • More and better school houses
Continued…… • Educational advances: • Noah Webster, textbooks • Standardized English, first dictionary 1828
Higher Education • Universities began popping up all over the east coast. • Women’s Education • 1820, Troy (first women’s seminary) founded by Emma Willard • 1830s colleges opening doors to women • Liberal Arts • Math • Latin • Greek • Philosophy
Lyceum Movement 1830s • Traveling lecturers
1st Reform Era, 1830s • Women led reform crusades. • Allowed women to leave the home to explore their own strengths. • A concerned population saw that society needed to be reformed and changed for many that could not advocate for themselves.
Demon Rum • Reformers tried to tackle the abuses of alcohol. • Heavy drinking decreased the efficiency of labor. • Poorly safeguarded machinery operators. • Drunkenness also fouled the sanctity of the family. • American Temperance Society formed in Boston 1826.
The Abolition Movement • 1830s , abolition movement strong • Northern states had outlawed slavery • The publishing of slave narratives and novels horrify northern whites • Frederick Douglass and William Lloyd Garrison found abolitionist newspapers • Women play a KEY ROLE in this movement
Women’s Suffrage • Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, Sojourner Truth • suffrage = right to vote • 1848: Seneca Falls Convention, NY
1843, Petitions to Massachusetts government for better treatment of mentally ill
Other Reforms… • Criminal Codes – being softened. • 1840s, debtor prisons being outlawed by states • 1828, American Peace Society, William Ladd
Wilderness Utopias • Shakers, 1790-early 1900s. • Mother Ann Lee, prohibits both sex and marriage. • Communalism – Lucy Wright
Oneida Community, 1848 • Radical • Free-love, complex marriage • Birth control, eugenic selections • for offspring
Transcendentalism • Outgrowth of Unitarian sect & Harvard intellectualism • Philosophy not a religion • Stressed inherent good nature of humanity, independence and self-reliance • Society and its institutions corrupt men (religion and political parties) • Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau
Art • Gilbert Stuart • John Trumbell • George Catlin
Literature, 1790-1860.In groups… • Review last part of Ch. 15 • Fill in key authors and titles under appropriate genres. • Take additional notes where necessary.