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The History of Film

The History of Film

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The History of Film

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  1. The History of Film

  2. The Birth of Film • 1861 – Coleman Sellers patents the Kinetoscope, which projects photos by flashing them rapidly on the screen • 1890’s – Thomas Edison builds a shack (“The Black Maria”) that becomes the world’s first movie studio • Edison patents the Kinetoscope

  3. 1895 - French Lumiere Brothers introduce cinematography (printer, camera, projector) and organize the first public performance of motion pictures

  4. 1903 – Edwin Porter produced first major American film, The Great Train Robbery. • This was the first film to have a beginning, middle and end http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bc7wWOmEGGY

  5. Remember…the purpose of a film is to tell a story to a mass audience!

  6. Visual Storytelling • The Birth of a Nation – 1915 – D.W. Griffith – controversial Civil War film that pulled filmmaking together as an art form (close-ups, long shots, alternating close-ups, etc.) • Focuses on realism, action, compelling plots

  7. Shift in Industry • The movie industry moved to The Hills of Hollywood • 50% of films produced world-wide came from Hollywood by 1914 • Studios were set up by independent producers

  8. Shifts in Industry • Stars over film • 1926 &1927 - “Talkies” – first films with sound! • Talkies changed visual expression SO much that some directors were hesitant to use sound • The Jazz Singer – first feature-length “talkie”

  9. Visual Storytelling First movie star…. Charlie Chaplin

  10. Other stars that popularized film

  11. Studios • Large studios failed – they cost too much $$$ • 1930’s and 1940’s – a desire to attract MASS audience • Industry was failing: bland films • 1950’s – Communist paranoia invades Hollywood • Black lists & “witch hunts”

  12. Competition • TV became a major rival – Americans could be entertained without leaving home • To compete, films turned to sex and violence – topics that used to be banned from TV • The Birds and A Streetcar Named Desire had more adult themes • TV Movies of the Week – film industry realized they could use TV for $$ • Film begins marketing TV • TV buys previously released movies

  13. 1960’s and 1970’s • The invention of the VCR • Cable TV and HBO • Theater chains (Regal, Showplace, AMC) • Younger audiences are attracted to movies

  14. 1980’s-today • Blockbuster Video, Netflix, On Demand, RedBox • DVD’s • Pixar creates first short film – big step for animation • HUGE mergers (Sony buys Columbia and Tri-Star, Warner merges with Time, Disney buys Miramax, Turner merges with New Line) • Dolby Stereo Digital Sound • IMAX • HDTV / DVR / On Demand