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International Handbook of Information Technology in Primary and Secondary Education Springer International Handbooks of Education, Vol. 20. Joke Voogt & Gerald Knezek (Eds.) Leading questions. Aim

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International Handbook of Information Technology in Primary and Secondary EducationSpringer International Handbooks of Education, Vol. 20

Joke Voogt & Gerald Knezek (Eds.)

leading questions
Leading questions


  • synthesize research on ICT in education from a broad international perspective

Leading questions

  • What is the potential of ICT to improve primary and secondary education?
  • How can the implementation of ICT in educational practice be supported?

Target group

  • Researchers, policy makers and professionals
contributions of
Contributions of:
  • 3 advisors
  • 11 sections
  • 15 section editors
  • 76 chapters
  • 136 authors from 23 countries
potential of it
Potential of IT
  • Sect. 3: IT and the learning process, Kwok Wing Lai, New Zealand
  • Sect. 7: IT and distance learning in K-12 education, Roemen Nikolov & Iliana Nikolova, Bulgaria
  • Sect. 9: Emerging technologies for education, Cathleen Norris & Elliott Soloway, USA

Factors impacting the learning process:

  • Sect. 2: IT and curriculum processes,Joke Voogt, Netherlands
  • Sect. 4: IT competencies and attitudes,Gerald Knezek & Rhonda Christensen, USA
  • Sect. 5: IT, pedagogical innovations and teacher learning,Nancy Law, Hong Kong

School environment factors

  • Sect. 6: IT and schools,Sara Dexter, USA

Societal environment factors

  • Sect. 8: IT and the digital divide,Paul Resta, USA & Thérèsa Laferrière, Canada
  • Sect. 11: International and regional programs and policies,Jef Moonen, Netherlands
overarching chapters
Overarching chapters
  • Sect. 1: Education in the information society, Ron Anderson, USA
  • Sect. 10 Methods for researching IT in Education, Margaret Cox, UK
teacher learning and teacher leadership in the handbook
Teacher learning and Teacher leadership in the Handbook
  • What do teachers need to know:
    • Thomas & Knezek: Standards for teachers
    • Kirschner et al.: Benchmarks for Teacher Education programs in the pedagogigal use of ICT
    • Koehler & Mishra (2006): The TPCK framework
  • What contributes to teacher’s technology integration

Knezek & Christensen: Will, Skill Tool model for Technology Integration

  • Beyond pedagogical knowledge
    • Riel & Becker: Characteristics of Teacher Leaders for ICT
    • Voogt: Challenges in coping with an ICT-enhanced curriculum
standards for teachers thomas knezek
Standards for teachers (Thomas & Knezek)

Teachers should be competent with respect to:

  • Technology operations and concepts
  • Planning and designing ICT-rich learning environments and experiences
  • Integrate ICT in Teaching, Learning and the curriculum
  • Integrate ICT in Assessment and evaluation
  • Use ICT for own Productivity and professional practice
  • Be aware of Social, ethical, legal and human issues

International Society for Technology in Education

9 benchmarks for teacher education kirschner et al
9 Benchmarks for Teacher Education (Kirschner et al.)
  • What
    • Personal ICT competencies
    • ICT as a mind tool
    • Social aspects of ICT-use in education
    • Adopting ICT in Teaching
  • How
    • Combining institutional learning and workplace learning
    • Communities of Practice
    • Embedding learning in a (personalized) ICT-rich learning environment
    • Start with structured experiences
    • Integration in other content domains
the tpck framework koehler mishra 2006
The TPCK Framework (Koehler & Mishra, 2006)

Technological Pedagogical Knowledge

Technological Content Knowledge






Pedagogical Content Knowledge

will skill tool model knezek christensen
Will, Skill Tool model (Knezek & Christensen)
  • Enhancing an educator’s will, skill, and access to technology tools will in turn lead to higher stages of classroom technology integration.

appr. 10% explained variance


Up to 90% explained variance

will skill or tool which is most important
Will, Skill or Tool. Which is most important?
  • Answer:
    • It depends on the Stage of Adoptionof the Teachers
  • For USA:
    • Skill is the strongest predictor (Explains 50% of Variance in Integration) (vs. 10% for Mexico)
  • For Mexico:
    • Tool is the strongest predictor (Explains 80% of Variance in Integration (vs. 30% for Texas)
how to move to the next stage of adoption
How to move to the next Stage of Adoption?

Lower Stage populations need Skills/ Tools to move from:

  • Awareness (stage 1) to
  • Understanding the process Stage 2) and
  • Applying the process (Stage 3)

Higher Stage Populations need moreWill (not more Skill):

e.g. Stage 6 vs. Stage 5 Teachers:

  • Creatively adapt technology to new contexts
  • Have little greater skill than Stage 5 peers
  • Have much stronger will than Stage 5 peers
  • Appear to have the traits of Teacher Leaders (Riel & Becker, 2008) and to possess Personal Entrepreneurship (Drent, 2005)
characteristics of teacher leaders riel becker
Characteristics of teacher leaders (Riel & Becker)
  • Levels of professional engagement:
    • Learning from practice: favouring innovation and divergent thinking
    • Local collaboration: moving from private teaching to shared professional commitments in the workplace
    • Professional networking: Access to important sources/ideas through teacher networks
    • Participation in knowledge building
ict teacher leaders private practice teachers
ICT: Teacher leaders - Private practice teachers
  • Teacher leaders use computers more frequently for instruction
  • Teacher leaders use computers more for professional purposes
  • Teacher leaders use more sophisticated software applications
    • Electronic mail, multimedia authoring software and presentation software
challenges to cope with voogt
Challenges to cope with (Voogt)
  • Difficult to prove evidence of learning with ICT on student learning outcomes
    • Focus on other goals
    • Implementation conditions are not optimal
  • Lack of coherent actions in curriculum implementation
    • No balance in the curricular spiderweb
  • Curriculum challenges in the 21st century
    • Contradictory messages from policy makers: Life long learning competencies vs emphasis on basic skills
how to measure technology integration stages of adoption
How to measure technology integration?Stages of Adoption
  • Six Stages
    • Awareness
    • Learning the Process
    • Understanding and application of the process
    • Familiarity and confidence
    • Adaptation to other contexts
    • Creative applications to new contexts




learning activities

teacher roles



materials & resources