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  1. Calcium • Calcium is the most common mineral in the human body. • About 99% of the calcium in the body is found in bones and teeth, while the other 1% is found in the blood and soft tissue. 鈣是人體最多的礦物質。 大約99% 鈣在身體的骨頭和牙裡, 另1% 在血液和軟的組織。

  2. Approximately 1,000 g of calcium in the average 70 kg adult body, • almost 98% is found in bone,1% in teeth, and the rest is found in blood, extracellular fluids, and within cells where it is a co-factor for a number of enzymes. 一個70 公斤成人身體內大約有1,000 克鈣。 98% 鈣在骨頭, 1%鈣在牙齒和血液, 細胞外流體及細胞內----為多种酵素的輔因子。

  3. Calcium • Calcium plays a role in mediating the constriction and relaxation of blood vessels (vasoconstriction and vasodilation), nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and the secretion of hormones, such as insulin. 鈣的功能包括: 血管的收縮和放鬆 , 神經傳導、肌肉收縮, 和激素的分泌, 譬如胰島素。

  4. Calcium • promotes blood clotting by activating the protein fibrin, and along withmagnesium helps to regulate the heart beat, muscle tone, muscle contraction and nerve conduction. 激活纖維蛋白 ,促進血液凝結。 和與鎂一起幫助調控心跳、 肌肉緊張、肌肉收縮和神經傳導。

  5. Chronic calcium deficiency • hypertension, 高血壓 • Prostate cancer前列腺癌 • colorectal cancer 直腸癌 • kidney stones, 腎石 • miscarriage, birth (heart) defects, • 流產, 出生(心臟) 缺陷 • menstrual and pre-menstrual problems • 月經和經前問題

  6. Chronic calcium deficiency • various bone, joint and periodontal diseases, • 各種各樣的骨頭, 關節和牙周病 • sleep disturbances, 睡眠困擾 • mental health / depressive disorders, • 精神健康/情緒抑鬱 • cardiovascular hemorrhagic diseases, • 心血管出血性的疾病,

  7. D3 restores normal calcium levels • the vitamin D-dependent transport system in the small intestine, the absorption of dietary calcium, 2) by the mobilization of calcium from bone into the circulation, 3) the reabsorption of calcium by the kidneys.

  8. low blood calcium • A low blood calcium level usually implies abnormal parathyroid function, and is rarely due to low dietary calcium intake since the skeleton provides a large reserve of calcium for maintaining normal blood levels. 血液鈣低水平通常表示副甲狀腺反常功能, 絕少和飲食攝取不足鈣有關, 因為骨骼是維持正常血液鈣水平的一個大儲備。

  9. low blood calcium Other causes of abnormally low blood calcium levels include : • chronic kidney failure, • vitamin D deficiency, • low blood magnesium levels 血液鈣低水平的其它因素: 慢性腎臟衰竭 , 缺乏維生素D, 血液鎂水平低

  10. Calcium concentrations

  11. Protein • The RDA for protein is 46 grams/day for adult women and 56 grams/day for adult men • The average intake of protein in the U.S. tends to be higher (women 65-70 grams/day and men 90-110 grams/day). 蛋白質RDA份量— 婦女是每天46克,男仕每天56 克 美國平均蛋白質攝取量, (婦女每 65-70 克,男仕 90-110 克。

  12. Protein • Researcher have calculated that each additional gram of protein results in an additional loss of 1.75 mg of calcium / day 研究發現 , 每攝取額外一克的蛋白質 會導致1.75 毫克鈣的損失

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  14. Protein • Because only 30% of dietary calcium is generally absorbed, each one-gram increase in protein intake/day would require an additional 5.8 mg of calcium per day to offset the calcium loss. 由於奶類食物只有 30% 鈣被吸收, 而每一克每天額外攝取的蛋白質, 會增加另外的 5.8 毫克鈣攝取 抵銷鈣損失。

  15. Phosphorus • Phosphorus, which is typically found in protein-rich foods and soft drink, tends to increase calcium loss . 磷, 是豐富蛋白質食物和汽水中, 一種常見礦物, 會導致鈣的流失。

  16. Sodium • Increased sodium intake results in increased loss of calcium in the urine, possibly due to competition between sodium and calcium for reabsorption in the kidney or by an effect of sodium on parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion. 增加的鈉攝取時, 由於鈉和鈣競爭在腎臟的重新吸收 或由鈉在副甲狀腺分泌的作用, 導致增加鈣在尿液的流失。

  17. Sodium • Each 2.3-gram increment of sodium (6 grams of salt; NaCl) excreted by the kidney has been found to draw about 24-40 milligrams (mg) of calcium into the urine. 每次腎臟排泄多 2.3 克的鈉 (即6 克的鹽 NaCl) 同時會有大約 24-40 毫克鈣 在尿液流失。

  18. Sodium • Because urinary losses account for about half of the difference in calcium retention among individuals, dietary sodium has a large potential to influence bone loss. 由於鈣在泌尿時的損失, 佔體內儲存大約一半的鈣, 飲食中攝取的鈉, 對骨質流失影響極大。

  19. Sodium • In adult women, each extra gram of sodium consumed per day is projected to produce an additional rate of bone loss of 1% per year if all of the calcium loss comes from the skeleton. 婦女額外攝取每克的鈉, 若然所有流失的鈣是來自骨骼, 會導致增加每年 1%骨質流失。

  20. Sodium • A 2-year study of postmenopausal women found increased urinary sodium excretion (an indicator of increased sodium intake) to be associated with decreased bone mineral density (BMD) at the hip. 一項為期 2 年的研究 , 發現更年期後婦女增加泌尿排泄鈉 (顯示增加攝取鈉) 同臀部骨質物密度減少的有關。

  21. Exercise • There is evidence to suggest that physical activity early in life contributes to the attainment of higher peak bone mass and is benefit in the prevention of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fracture 有證據顯示, 在年青時運動對達至更佳的骨質密度 及對預防骨質疏鬆和拆骨破裂有幫助。

  22. The beneficial skeletal effect of increased physical activity was achievable only at calcium intakes above 1,000 mg/day. 增加運動 對有利骨骼的益處, 只會在每天攝取 多過1,000 毫克的鈣, 才能達到。

  23. The Recom Dietary Intake (RDI) • Updated recommendations for calcium intake based on the optimization of bone health were released by the NHMRC in 2006. 2006年NHMRC對優化骨頭健康, 發布新的鈣攝取份量的最新建議。

  24. RDI for Calcium Life Stage  Age  Males (mg/day)  Females (mg/day)  Infants  0-6 months 210  210  Infants  7-12 months  270  270  Children  1-3   500  500  Children  4-8   700  700  Children  9-13   1000 -1,300  1000 - 1,300  Adolescents  14-18   1,300  1,300  Adults  19-50   1,000  1,000  Adults  51 and older  1000 - 1300  1000 - 1300  Pregnancy  18 and younger -  1,300  Pregnancy  19 and older -  1,000  Breastfeeding  18 and younger -  1,300  Breastfeeding  19s and older -  1,000

  25. Average dietary intake J Am Coll Nutr, 1994

  26. ALL in ONE ? • No multivitamin / multi-mineral tablet contains 100% of the recommended daily value (DV) for calcium because it is too bulky, and the resulting pill would be too large to swallow. 沒有任何多種維生素及礦物片劑, 能包含100% 鈣的每日建議攝取的份量, 因為鈣是龐大的, 所以會令片劑太大,以至不能吞下。

  27. Calcium Supplement • A complete bone health formula. • Promote and improve bone health • Contains Calcium, Magnesium, and vitamin D. • 一個完全骨頭健康配方 • 促進和改進骨頭健康 • 含鈣、鎂、和維生素D

  28. Calcium & Magnesium:   • Both elements share left / right-sided cell receptors and are essential to human health 鈣和鎂: 兩個分享細胞受體左/右的礦物 對人類健康十分重要。

  29. While calcium affects muscle contractions, magnesium balances that effect and relaxes muscles.   • unlike calcium, most of magnesium is inside the cell, 當鈣影響肌肉收縮, 鎂平衡收縮的影響,並且放鬆肌肉。 不同於鈣, 大多數鎂是在細胞裡面,

  30. Although the process of absorption for magnesium is similar to that of calcium, • some people absorb or retain much more magnesium than calcium (or more calcium than magnesium), 雖然吸收的過程為鎂與和鈣相似, 但有此人會吸收或貯存較多鎂 (又或會吸收或貯存較多鈣)

  31. Supplement & Bone mass Lyn Patrick, N.D.Comparative Absorption of Calcium Sources and Calcium Citrate Malate for the Prevention of Osteoporosis (Altern Med Rev 1999;4(2):74-85)

  32. To maximize absorption, take no more than 500 mg of elemental calcium at one time. 要有效吸收鈣, 一次不能攝取多過500 毫克鈣。

  33. Kidney stone ? • **Overall, increased dietary calcium has been associated with a decreased risk of kidney stones. ** 整體來說 飲食增加樑攝取鈣 和減少患上腎結石的風險有關係。

  34. Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) • The NHMRC set the tolerable upper level (UL) of intake for calcium at 2,500 milligrams (mg) of calcium per day. NHMRC 設定鈣的每天最高安全攝取份量(UL)為2,500 毫克。