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Chapter 15

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Chapter 15

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  1. Chapter 15 Chemical Compounds

  2. Chemical Compounds Introduction • In Chapter 14, we learned how to balance chemical reaction containing elements and chemical compounds. • In Chapter 15, we will learn about the structure and properties of ionic and covalent compounds as well as the properties of acids and bases. • Acids and bases are found in things that we encounter everyday.

  3. Chemical Compounds Introduction • 1) What is a chemical compound? • 2) What is an ionic compound? • 3) What is a covalent compound? • 4) How does bonding occur in atoms?

  4. Chemical Compounds Introduction • 5) What is an acid? • 6) What is a base? • 7) What is a substance with a high acid content? • 8) What is a substance with a high base content?

  5. Section 1: Objectives • 1) Describe the properties of ionic and covalent compounds. • 2) Classify compounds as ionic or covalent based on their properties.

  6. Ionic and Covalent Compounds • When ions or molecules combine, they form compounds. • A chemical bond is the combining of 2 atoms to form molecules or compounds. • Bonding can occur between valence electrons of different atoms. • This is how chemical bonds are made.

  7. Ionic and Covalent Compounds • An ionic bond is an attraction between oppositely charged ions. • Compounds that contain ionic bonds are called ionic compounds. • Ionic compounds are: • Brittle • Have a high melting point • Soluble

  8. Ionic and Covalent Compounds • Brittleness is a property that most ionic compounds share. • Ionic compounds tend to be brittle solids at room temperature. • They usually break apart when hit.

  9. Ionic and Covalent Compounds

  10. Ionic and Covalent Compounds • High melting points is another property that ionic compounds share. • Ionic compounds have a high melting point because of the strong ionic bonds that hold ions together. • In other words, it takes a lot of heat/energy to break an ionic bond.

  11. Ionic and Covalent Compounds • Ionic compounds are highly soluble. • They dissolve easily in water. • They are good conductors of electricity because the particles left are charged. • Ionic compounds are highly soluble and very ductile.

  12. Ionic and Covalent Compounds • Covalent compounds are compounds that form when a group of atoms shares electrons. • This sharing of atoms forms a covalent bond. • Covalent bonds are weaker than ionic bonds.

  13. Ionic and Covalent Compounds • Covalent Bond Properties: • Low Solubility • Low Melting Points • Not good conductors of electric current

  14. Chapter 15 Section 1-2: Pop Quiz • 1) What must happen before compounds can form? • 2) What is an ionic bond? • 3) Give 3 properties of ionic compounds. • 4) What is required before an ionic compound can break?

  15. Chapter 15 Section 1-2: Pop Quiz • 5) T/F Covalent bonds are stronger than ionic bonds. • 6) List 3 properties of covalent bonds. • 7) Ionic compounds are ________ ________ and very _________.

  16. Chapter 15 Section 1-2: Pop Quiz • 8) List 3 properties of acids. • 9) List 3 properties of bases. • 10) List 1 common use for an acid and 1 common use for a base.

  17. Section 2: Objectives • Describe 4 properties of acids. • Identify 4 uses of acids. • Describe 4 properties of bases. • Identify 4 uses of bases.

  18. Acids and Bases • Acid: any compound that increases the number of hydronium ions when dissolved in water • Hydronium ion: H30+

  19. Acids and Bases • There are 4 properties of acids: • Sour flavor • Change color in indicators • React with metals • Conduct electricity • Indicator: compound that can reversibly change color depending on pH conditions

  20. Acids and Bases • These are some uses of acids: • Sulfuric acid is used to make products such as paper, paint, detergents, and fertilizers. • Hydrochloric acid is used to make cleaner for swimming pool liners. • Citric acid and ascorbic acid are found in orange juice.

  21. Acids and Bases • Base: any compound that increases the number of hydroxide ions when dissolved in water • Hydroxide ion: OH-

  22. Acids and Bases • There are 4 properties of bases: • Bitter flavor • Change color in indicators • Conduct electricity • Slippery feel

  23. Acids and Bases • These are some uses of bases: • Sodium hydroxide is a base used to make soap and paper. • Calcium hydroxide is used to make cement and plaster. • Ammonia is found in many household cleaners.