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Voluntary Diesel Emission Reduction Programs. HD Rule/ Retrofit. Steve Albrink Retrofit Program Office of Transportation and Air Quality. Need for Air Pollution Reduction. Fine particles from diesel exhaust can remain in the atmosphere for weeks, and carry over hundreds of miles.

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Voluntary Diesel Emission Reduction Programs

HD Rule/Retrofit

Steve Albrink

Retrofit Program

Office of Transportation and Air Quality


Need for Air Pollution Reduction

Fine particles from diesel exhaust can remain in the atmosphere for weeks, and carry over hundreds of miles

Diesel exhaust is likely to be carcinogenic to humans

Ozone has been shown to reduce yields of vegetables and field crops

Clean Air Act requires EPA to take steps to remedy regional haze in 156 pristine “Class I” areas


without new standards

with new standards

Calendar Year

Nationwide Heavy-Duty

PM Emissions


without new standards

with new standards

Calendar Year

Nationwide Heavy-Duty

NOx Emissions


Estimated Costs and Benefits

  • Health benefits
  • The program will prevent annually:
    • Over 8,300 premature deaths
    • Over 750,000 respiratory illnesses
    • 1.5 million lost work days
  • Benefits are 16 times greater than costs
    • Monetized benefits: $70.3 billion/year
    • Compliance costs: $4.3 billion/year
      • Estimated at $1,200-1,900 per engine
      • About 5 cents per gallon of fuel

2007 HDE Program

Key Elements

  • Applies new NOx and PM standards to heavy-duty engines and vehicles
    • 90%+ emission reductions
    • Phase-in of NOx standards 2007-2010
    • Incentives for early technology introduction
  • Reduces diesel fuel sulfur levels nationwide
    • Enables use of aftertreatment technology
    • Highway diesel fuel sulfur cap of 15 ppm
    • Transitional flexibilities 2006-2010
    • Small Refiner Flexibility

Valuable to States

  • States will be counting on heavy-duty diesel emission reductions to meet National Ambient Air Quality Standards.
  • Nonattainment Areas for PM2.5 and 8-hour Ozone will be designated this year.
  • State Implementation Plans (SIP) will include these reductions.

What is the Voluntary Diesel Retrofit Program?

  • A voluntary program designed to install pollution-reducing technology on existing diesel vehicles and equipment
    • Existing diesel engines can last 20-35 years
    • 2007 Highway & Proposed Nonroad rules address only future engines
  • We are building a market for clean diesel concepts
    • Accelerating the delivery of ULSD
    • Forging business partnerships and relationships
    • Investing EPA resources to accelerate market growth

Successful Retrofit Program Model

  • The Diesel Retrofit Program works best when:
    • EPA HQ and Regional offices create partnerships with local leadership
    • Local leadership is in the best position to:
      • Create expanding retrofit programs (as opposed to a single demo)
      • Work with local fleet management and decision makers
      • Know how to secure local and regional funding
  • EPA will supply technical support:
    • Engine manufacturers
    • Retrofit manufacturers
    • Fuel refineries and suppliers

The Role of Diesel Fuel

  • ULSD is becoming more widely available throughout the country
    • Several fuel companies can distribute ULSD today in specific regions
  • The foundation of many retrofit projects will be the fuel supply
    • Many technologies require Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) Fuel
    • Some can operate on current fuel but can not achieve full emission reduction potential
    • Generally, PM filter with ULSD achieve PM reductions over 90%

What is Retrofit Technology?

  • Retrofit technology can be:any change to an engine system above and beyond what is required by EPA regulations that improves the engine’s emission performance:
      • Catalyst or filter
      • Engine upgrade
      • Early engine replacement
      • Use of cleaner fuels or additives
      • Idling control equipment
      • Combination of above
  • Retrofit Web site maintains a list of manufacturers and verified technology

Retrofit Technology Verification

  • Objective:Evaluate the emission reduction effectiveness of retrofit technology
    • - Verification provides stakeholders with confidence that these technologies will achieve quantifiable emission reductions
  • Verification consists of the following:
    • - Appropriate Testing Protocols
    • - Statistical Sampling Methods
    • - Durability Requirements

Retrofit Technology Verification

  • 14 Technologies Currently EPA-Verified
    • DPFs, DOCs, Crankcase Filtration, Emulsified Fuel, Biodiesel, Cetane Enhancers
  • Recent Verification
    • Caterpillar, DOC
    • Engine Control Systems, DPF
    • Donaldson, DOC & Crankcase Control
    • Clean Diesel Technology, DOC & Fuel Borne Catalyst
  • Several Verifications in Process
diesel retrofit technologies an overview
Diesel Retrofit Technologies: An Overview
  • Existing emission controls systems can greatly reduce diesel particulate matter (PM) emissions
    • Diesel oxidation catalysts and diesel particulate filters
  • Existing and developing emission control systems can greatly reduce NOx and PM emissions
    • Lean NOx catalysts, EGR, SCR and combined systems
  • Technologies to control crankcase emissions
  • Advanced fuels
    • Low sulfur
diesel retrofit technologies an overview19
Diesel Retrofit Technologies: An Overview
  • Integrated emission control systems will allow diesel engines to meet future emission challenges
  • Integration will involve the entire vehicle including:
    • The engine
    • The emission control system
    • The fuel
diesel oxidation catalysts
Diesel Oxidation Catalysts









Oxidation catalysts oxidize carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HCs) and the soluble organic fraction (SOF) to reduce particulate matter (PM), CO, HCs, and toxic emissions

diesel oxidation catalysts are efficient and a proven technology
Diesel Oxidation Catalysts Are Efficientand a Proven Technology
  • Hundreds of thousands have been retrofitted since the 1960s on highway, mining, materials handling and construction vehicles
  • Durabilities in excess of 10,000 hours of operation
  • Diesel oxidation catalyst control capabilities
    • PM 20 to 30% reduction
    • CO > 40%
    • HCs > 50%
diesel particulate filter technology
Diesel Particulate Filter Technology

Trapped Soot

Cell Plugs

Exhaust (CO2, H2O)Out

Exhaust In(Soot, CO, HC)Enter

diesel particulate filters are efficient and are developing an impressive track record
Diesel Particulate Filters Are Efficient and Are Developing an Impressive Track Record
  • Filter control capabilities
    • PM 80% to 90% reduction
    • CO > 75%
    • HCs > 85%

PM Emissions with Trap

  • Typical test filter – current standards
  • Test filter – 2007 standards
  • Unused test filter
diesel particulate filter retrofit experience
Diesel Particulate Filter Retrofit Experience
  • Retrofitting existing diesel engines with diesel particulate filters is an available strategy to reduce emissions including PM, CO, and HCs
  • A growing number of programs and applications have been successfully completed on highway, non-road and stationary engines
  • More than 25,000 filter systems have been installed on highway vehicles
  • Retrofit technology development continues to expand the range of applications available
filter regeneration strategy some considerations
Filter Regeneration Strategy: Some Considerations
  • Application and duty cycle
  • Engine out emissions
  • Vehicle/engine condition
  • Fuel sulfur level
  • Maintenance and operational procedures
filter regeneration strategies used to date in retrofit applications
Filter Regeneration Strategies Used to Date In Retrofit Applications
  • Engine reliant
  • Catalyst-assisted
  • Electric heater-assisted
  • Fuel burner-assisted
  • Off-board regeneration
  • Intake/exhaust throttling
overview of filter retrofit programs
Overview of Filter Retrofit Programs
  • The number and scope of retrofit programs are rapidly growing
    • North America (California, New York, New England, Mexico, and elsewhere)
    • Europe (Austria, Finland, France, Germany, Sweden, Switzerland, and United Kingdom)
    • Asia (Hong Kong, Korea, Japan, and Taiwan)
    • Latin America (El Salvador and Nicaragua)
  • Over 50,000 filters retrofitted worldwide on highway and non-road vehicles
other control technologies
Other Control Technologies
  • Emulsified Fuel- up to 50% PM, 10 to 15% NOx
  • Biodiesel (B-20 up to 7% PM, 4% NOx)
  • DOC w/ fuel borne catalyst (41-50% PM)
  • DOC w/ crankcase filtration (25+% PM)
  • Lean-NOx catalysts
  • Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR)
  • Selective catalytic reduction (SCR)
lean nox catalysts
Lean NOx Catalysts
  • Used on passenger cars in Europe and on some heavy-duty engines as original equipment
  • Have been retrofitted on a limited scale
  • Can achieve modest NOx reductions, 5-15%
  • Hydrocarbon injection can increase control capabilities
exhaust gas recirculation egr
Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR)
  • A portion of the engine’s exhaust is recirculated to the turbocharger inlet or intake manifold
  • Cooled, recirculated gases lower combustion temperatures and reduce NOx formation
  • Particulate filters are an important part of EGR systems, preventing PM from being recirculated to the engine
exhaust gas recirculation cont
Exhaust Gas Recirculation (cont.)
  • EGR systems have been installed on some newer engines
  • Technology demonstration programs of retrofits have been conducted in Houston and Los Angeles; more programs are planned for other cities
  • EGR can achieve NOx reductions of >40%
selective catalytic reduction scr
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR)
  • Used extensively on stationary sources
  • Has been applied to marine vessels and locomotives and in truck and passenger car demonstration programs
  • Involves use of a catalyst, a reagent (usually a solution of urea, sometimes ammonia) and dosing equipment to inject the reagent into the exhaust stream
selective catalytic reduction cont
Selective Catalytic Reduction (cont.)
  • SCR control capabilities
    • PM – 30 to 50% reduction
    • CO and HC – >80%
    • NOx – 60 to 80%
key considerations for retrofit programs
Key Considerations for Retrofit Programs
  • How long the vehicle is going to remain in service
  • The condition of the engine is an important factor in making a decision whether to install retrofit control technology
  • Retrofit at the time of engine rebuild can be advantageous
  • For filter retrofit, one must consider: vehicle application, exhaust temperature (duty cycle), engine-out PM emissions, fuel sulfur level, and the regeneration strategy to be followed
key considerations for retrofit programs36
Key Considerations for Retrofit Programs
  • Retrofit Technology Check List
    • Model Year
      • Generally, only 1994 and newer should get PM filters
      • Some newer engines came with DOCs from the factory
    • Size
      • Properly sized control systems ensure low back pressure and maximum performance
    • Vehicle Integration
      • Space, accessibility and exhaust temperature are important vehicle integration issues
      • Devices are often installed in-line or as a muffler replacement
key considerations for retrofit programs37
Key Considerations for Retrofit Programs
  • Retrofit Technology Check List (cont.)
    • Fuel Type
      • For PM control, <15 ppm sulfur fuel allows for maximum emission control performance (even for DOCs) and best filter regeneration characteristics
    • Maintenance
      • Vehicles to be retrofitted should be properly and regularly maintained—key factor for success
      • Retrofit technologies should be maintained per their manufacturer’s recommended procedures
frequently asked questions concerning retrofit programs
Frequently Asked Questions Concerning Retrofit Programs
  • Costs
    • Costs depend on many factors including:
      • Number of vehicles retrofitted (sales volume)
      • Retrofit technology used (oxidation catalyst, filter, etc.)
      • Engine size (displacement)
      • Engine out emissions
      • Fuel quality
      • Exhaust temperature and duty cycle (These factors will affect which retrofit technology will be appropriate.)
    • Costs are expected to decrease as the market expands
frequently asked questions concerning retrofit programs cont


Cost per Device/System ($)

Diesel Oxidation Catalysts (DOC)

425 to 1,150

Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF)

3,000 to 5,500

Combined Lean NOx Catalyst/DPF Systems

5,000 to 10,000

EGR Systems

13,000 to 15,000

SCR Systems

10,500 to 50,000

Frequently Asked Questions Concerning Retrofit Programs (cont.)

Notes: DPF costs are higher for active systems and systems that include backpressure monitoring.

Year 2000 data.

frequently asked questions concerning retrofit programs cont40
Frequently Asked Questions Concerning Retrofit Programs (cont.)
  • Drivability
    • Properly selected retrofit technologies do not impair driving performance
  • Maintenance
    • Oxidation and lean NOx catalysts are virtually maintenance free
    • Filters require very little maintenance (ash removal)
    • SCR maintenance, as per manufacturer’s specifications
  • Effects on Engine Life
    • Properly maintained engines and retrofit control systems do not shorten engine life
frequently asked questions concerning retrofit programs cont41
Frequently Asked Questions Concerning Retrofit Programs (cont.)
  • Fuel Penalties
    • Most oxidation and lean NOx catalysts have no effect on fuel consumption
    • Most filters have no effect on fuel consumption
    • Urea consumption in SCR systems results in an equivalent fuel penalty of 3-5%
  • Warranties
    • Manufacturers provide various warranties as part of a purchase agreement
  • A wide variety of retrofit options are available for diesel engines to reduce HC, CO, PM and toxic emissions
  • NOx retrofit controls are emerging
  • A growing number of retrofit programs are being successfully implemented
  • Technology development continues to expand the range of applications available for retrofit
  • A successful retrofit program must be properly designed and implemented
some diesel retrofit web sites
Some Diesel Retrofit Web Sites
  • EPA’s Voluntary Diesel Retrofit Program:
  • The Manufacturers of Emission Controls Association:
    • Click on “Publications” to access MECA fact sheets and technical documents on diesel retrofit
  • The Diesel Technology Forum:
  • The California Air Resources Board’s Diesel Risk Reduction Program: