APA – The Format How to write your paper in proper APA format
Acknowledgement Most of the slides in this presentation were taken from the Powerpoint presentation on the homepage of UW-Green Bay’s Professional Program in Nursing (2003) about APA format (American Psychological Association Writing, 2003). Some slides were modified to be more relevant to COU 601 students at UMASS -Boston.
APA General Requirements • 12 point black font (Times Roman, Courier) • 1” margin on all sides • Major Sections • Title Page • Body of Paper or Text (This part 3-5 pages) • References
Contains 5 Elements: 1.Page Header and Page Number 2. Running head for publication-NOT FOR THIS CLASS! 3. Title of the Report 4. Byline or the Author’s Name 5. Institutional Affiliation
Title Guidelines • Contains 10-12 words – (capitalize all verbs, nouns, adjectives, adverbs, and pronouns, both words of a hyphenated word, and first word after a colon or dash) • Page header will contain the first 2-3 words of title and page number. Title page is “page 1”. • For your 1st three papers, use your 3 digit ID number. 00##562#
Title Guidelines • Centered between the left and right margins • Positioned in the upper half of the paper • Double spaced if it has more than one line
Title, Name, Affiliation, are all double spaced on title page. Ethics of Writing 1 5 Spaces between Page Header and page number. Ethics of Writing Research Papers: An Analysis For Student Review Ima Gradstudent University of Massachusetts - Boston
562 1 Ethics of Writing Research Papers: An Analysis For Student Review Ima Gradstudent University of Massachusetts - Boston
The Title Page Your first paper should have the words “for Student Review” in the title. The second submission (to me) should have the words” for Final Review” to designate the two submissions. THIS IS NOT AN APA GUIDELINE.
Introduction to the Paper
Introduction: Contents & Characteristics • Normally you would type title of manuscript at top center. • For papers in this class use the headings provided on the schemas.
How to Use Abbreviations • The first time a term to be abbreviated is used, write it out completely and follow it by its abbreviation in parentheses. The National Institute of Mental Health’s (NIMH) standards ……(2001). • When referring to the same term later in the paper, the abbreviation can be used. The NIMH (2001)……..
Purpose of Seriation • Organizes elements of the statement, concept or idea • Clarifies the sequence or relationship between elements • Indicated when elements are lengthy or complex • Used to facilitate reader comprehension
Two Distinct Formats • Within a sentence or paragraph Identify each element with a small letter enclosed in parentheses. • Separate paragraphs in a series Identify each element with a number.
Within a Sentence or Paragraph EXAMPLE WITH COMMAS: “The scientific method contains seven steps including (a) identify the problem, (b) define the problem operationally, (c) Develop hypothesis or research questions…”
EXAMPLE WITH COLONS: Cook and Campbell (1979) identified four types of validity commonly used in social research: (a) conclusion validity; (b) internal validity; (c) construct validity; and (d) external validity.
Examples ONE HEADING: Centered Uppercase and Lowercase Heading (Level 1) TWO HEADINGS: Centered Uppercase and Lowercase Heading (Level 1) Flush Left, Italicized, Uppercase and Lowercase Side Heading (Level 3)
Examples THREE HEADINGS: Centered Uppercase and Lowercase Heading (Level 1) Flush Left, Italicized, Uppercase, and Lowercase Side Heading (Level 3) Indented, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period. (Level 4)
Appropriate Citation of Quotes and Paraphrasing
Paraphrasing versus Quoting • It is preferable to paraphrase, rather than quote the ideas of others unless the wording is so wonderful that a quote is warranted. • How could you paraphrase the above sentence?
Paraphrasing • Original wording It is preferable to paraphrase, rather than quote, the ideas of others unless the wording is so wonderful that a quote is warranted. • Paraphrased wordingIt is generally better to use your own words to describe someone else’s ideas instead of restating someone else’s words verbatim.
Key Points to Remember • Quotations (words and phrases not developed by the author) and paraphrasing (ideas not developed by the author but in the author’s own words) must be properly cited. • There may be more than one citation in a paragraph.
Key Points to Remember cont. • Citations should follow every sentence where the words and ideas are not original unless it is clear from the context that multiple sentences came from the same source.
Two Types of Quotations • Short Quotationsare less than 40 words. Incorporate into the text and enclose with double quotation marks (“ ”). • Long Quotations are more than 40 words Display in a double spaced block, indented five spaces from the left, with no quotation marks.
Rules for all Quotations • Anything that is directly quoted from someone else’s work must be encased in quotation marks and properly cited or with ellipsis points. • Use 3 ellipsis points (…) to indicate that material has been omitted within a sentence. • Use 4 ellipsis points (….) to indicate material has been omitted between sentences (the first point indicates the period at the end of the first sentence quoted).
Rules for all Quotations cont. • Provide the author, year of publication, and specific page number of quote. • Include a complete reference for all quotations in the reference list.
Referencing Sources in the Body of the Paper
Secondary Sources • Cite the secondary source in the reference list. • In text, name the original work and give a citation for the secondary source.
Secondary Sources Text Citation: Block’s study (as cited in Houser, 1998) ….. Reference List Entry: Houser, R. (1998). Counseling and educational research: Evaluation and application. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
ONE WORK BY ONE AUTHOR Author surname and year of publication • Kubsch (2003) compared nurse staffing patterns………… • In a recent study of nurse staffing patterns, it was found that …..(Kubsch, 2003).
ONE WORK BY TWO AUTHORS • Always cite both names every time the reference appears • Connect the last names of a multiple author work with an ampersand (Smith & Smith, 2004).
ONE WORK BY THREE, FOUR, or FIVE AUTHORS Cite all authors the first time the reference occurs. • All further references, include only the surname of the first author followed by et al. and the year in parentheses.
ONE WORK BY THREE, FOUR, or FIVE AUTHORS • (first citation) Block, Kubsch, and Gallagher-Lepak, (2003) found….. • (second citation) These authors found that …. (Block et al., 2003). ORBlock and colleagues (2003) found that…….
ONE WORK BY SIX OR MORE AUTHORS • Cite only the surname of the first author followed by et al. and the year for the first and all subsequent citations • In the reference list, provide the initials and surnames of the first six authors, and shorten any remaining authors to et al.
WORKS WITH NO KNOWN AUTHOR(S) • Cite the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title) and the year. • Use double quotation marks around the title of an article or chapter.
WORKS WITH NO KNOWN AUTHOR(S) • Italicize the title of a periodical, book, brochure, or report. • When the work is designated as “Anonymous”, cite the word followed by a comma and the date.
TWO OR MORE WORKS WITHIN THE SAME PARENTHESES • Cite the works in the same order they appear in the reference list. • References are listed in alphabetical order. • Separate the citations with semicolons.
PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS • Includes letters, memos, e-mail, electronic bulletin boards, personal interviews, telephone conversations, etc. • Are cited only in the text but not included in the reference list because information is not recoverable • Give initials and surname of the communicator and the exact date of the communication M. J. DeVillers (personal communication, April 6, 2001) found….. Scholars do not always view nursing as a profession (M. J. Devillers, personal communication, April 6, 2001).
So, you want to cite my lecture? • Basic form:Lectures are considered personal communications by the APA Manual. Personal communications are not included on the reference list because a lecture is unpublished and a person would not be able to go back and recover the information. Cite the communication in the text of your paper.Example: (I.S. Lehmann, personal communication, January 29, 2007)
Citing Electronic References in the Text • Indicate the page, chapter, figure, table, or equation at the appropriate point in the text • Always give page numbers for quotations (see section 3.34) • The words “page” and “chapter” are abbreviated (Collins, 2000, p. 232) (Katz, 1989, chap. 3)
Citing Electronic References in the Text • If the electronic source does not provide page numbers, use the paragraph number preceded by the paragraph symbol ¶ or the abbreviation “para” • If the paragraph and page number are not visible, cite the heading and the number of the paragraph following it to direct the reader to the location of the material (see section 3.39) (Wilson, 2000, ¶ 5) (Spender, 2000, Conclusion section, para. 1)
Start the reference list on a new page • Type the word ‘References’ center top of page • Double space ALL LINES between and within entries • Use a hanging indent format • Arrange alphabetically • If same first author – arrange by year of publication Rules
Table 1 Acceptable Abbreviations for Reference List Entries Abbreviation Reference list entry chap. chapter ed. edition Rev. ed. revised edition 2nd ed. Second edition Ed. (Eds.) Editor (Editors Trans. Translator(s) n.d. no date p. (pp.) page (pages) Vol. Volume (as in Vol. 4) vols. volumes (as in 4 vol.) No. Number Pt. Part Tech Rep. Technical Report Suppl. Supplement More Rules
Generic Format of Entries Periodical (includes journals and scholarly newsletters): Author, A. A., Author, B., B., & Author, C. C. (2003). Title of article. Title of Periodical, vol.(issue), page numbers. Nonperiodical (includes books, reports, manuals, and AV media): Author, A. A. (2003). Title of book. Location: Publisher. Chapter in an Edited Book: Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (2003). Title of chapter. In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. ). Location: Publisher.
Journal Citations on the Reference List