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November 18, 2013 Ch. 9 Key Issue 1. BW- What is Development?????? Upon answering question, students will review and watch- “The Science of Overpopulation” -How does this affect development????. VACATION. Where would we like to go on vacation?

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November 18 2013 ch 9 key issue 1
November 18, 2013 Ch. 9 Key Issue 1

  • BW- What is Development??????

  • Upon answering question, students will review and watch- “The Science of Overpopulation”

    -How does this affect development????


Vacation
VACATION

  • Where would we like to go on vacation?

    • Preferably a popular, yet less-developed destination

  • What makes this an attractive destination?

    • Amenities, climate, scenery, food/lodging $

  • Are the people who live in this place year-round fortunate to live at such a desirable location?

  • What do the local people depend on for income?

  • What do the people in this country who do not live in a tourist area do for work?

  • Can any of these people who want to vacation in the US come? Why/why not?


A world divided
A world divided

  • The world is divided by relatively rich and relatively poor countries

  • We will try to understand the reasons for this division and learn what can be done about it

  • Caribbean island vacation

    • Who works at the resorts?

    • What is life like surrounding the resort?

    • How would you feel?


What is development november 18 2013

What is Development?November 18, 2013

The process of improving the material conditions of people through the diffusion of knowledge and technology

More developed countries (MDCs)

AKA developed countries

Lesser developed countries (LDCs)

AKA emerging or developing countries


Course outline
Course Outline

  • VI.Industrialization and Economic Development 13–17%

  • A.Growth and diffusion of industrialization

  • 1.The changing roles of energy and technology

  • 2.Industrial Revolution

  • 3.Evolution of economic cores and peripheries

  • 4.Geographic critiques of models of economic localization

  • (i.e., bid rent, comparative costs of transportation), industrial

  • location, economic development, and world systems


November 18 2013 ch 9 key issue 1

  • Content Area section)

  • B.Contemporary patterns and impacts of industrialization and

  • development

  • 1.Spatial organization of the world economy

  • 2.Variations in levels of development

  • 3.Deindustrialization and economic restructuring

  • 4.Globalization and international division of labor

  • 5.Natural resources and environmental concerns

  • 6.Sustainable development

  • 7.Local development initiatives: government policies

  • 8.Women in development


Economic indicators of development
ECONOMIC INDICATORS OF DEVELOPMENT

  • 5 factors: Most important GDP

    • Economic structure, worker productivity, access to raw materials, and availability of consumer goods

      GDP PER CAPITA

  • MDC: $15 per hour

  • LDC: $2 per hour

  • GDP: value of the total output of goods & services produced in a country

    • Divide GDP by population = contribution made by the ave individual toward generating a countries wealth in a year


Types of jobs
Types of jobs

  • Jobs fall into 3 categories:

    • Primary, Secondary, Tertiary

  • Comparing types of economic activities in MDC/LDC

    • Look at the % of people working in each category

  • Primary sector: directly extract materials from E

    • Via farming, mining, fishing, foresting

  • Secondary: process, transform, and assemble raw materials into useful products

  • Tertiary: provision of goods in exchange of $

    • Retail, banking, law, education, & gov’t


November 18 2013 ch 9 key issue 1


Productivity
Productivity

  • Productivity: value of a product compared to amount of labor needed to make it

  • Value added: gross value of the product – the cost of raw materials and energy

    • ~$80k US, $70k Japan, $1k China, $500 India

  • Workers in MDCs produce more w/ less effort

    • More machines, tools, equipment, etc.

    • MDC workers are more productive


Raw materials
Raw materials

  • Development requires raw materials & energy sources

    • Iron Ore and Coal help transform UK in late 18th C

    • Resources depleted, est. colonies to import more

  • Specific raw materials become important bring dvlpmt

    • If an LDC has oil, they may develop to an MDC

  • A country’s abundance of resources=chance of dvlpmt

  • Exceptions to that rule

    • Japan, Singapore, S.Korea, and Switzerland

    • Success through world trade


Consumer goods
Consumer goods

  • MDC: goods & services devoted to transp & comm.

    • Vehicles, phones, computers

    • Helps provide access to jobs & spreads info

    • More leisure activities available

  • LDC: Not as concerned with tech. advances

    • “Haves” and “Have nots”

    • Spread from urban to rural

  • Connecting MDCs and LDCs through technology


How is development measured
How is development measured?

  • Social indicators of development

    • Education and literacy

      • The literacy rate

    • Health and welfare

      • Diet (adequate calories)

      • Access to health care


How is development measured1
How is development measured?

  • Demographic indicators of development

    • Life expectancy

      • Babies born today in MDCs have a life expectancy in the 70s; babies born in LDCs, in the 60s

    • Other demographic indicators:

      • Infant mortality

      • Natural increase

      • Crude birth rate


Education literacy
Education & Literacy

  • More developed=^quantity and quality the edu.

  • Quantity=ave # of school years attended

  • Quality=student/teacher ratio and literacy rate

  • Literacy rate: % of people who can read/write

    • MDCs=98% LDC=60%

  • MDC=10 years in school

    • LDC=a few

  • MDC: student/teacher ratio is 2x higher than LDC


Student teacher ratios
Student-Teacher Ratios

Students per teacher, primary school level. Primary school teachers have much larger class

sizes in LDCs than in MDCs, partly because of the large numbers of young people

in the population (Also, refer to Fig. 2-15).


Persons per physician
Persons per Physician

There is a physician for every 500 or fewer people in most MDCs, while thousands of people share a doctor on average in LDCs. Especially in rural areas. Urban areas tend to be much better served.


Calories per capita
Calories per Capita

Daily available calories per capita as percent of requirements. In MDCs, the average person consumes one-third or more over the required average minimum, which accounts for the obesity found in North America and some affluent countries.

In LDCs, the average person gets only the minimum requirement or less.


Us rankings
US RANKINGS

  • 1st economically

  • 17th in education

    • 28th math

    • 18th reading

    • 22nd science

  • 1st in crime

    • 1st incarceration

    • 24th homicide

  • 1st obesity

  • 19th democratic freedoms


November 19 2013 mdc v ldc activity
November 19, 2013MDC v. LDC- Activity

  • Students will be placed in areas of the room labeled MDC and LDC based on accurate world population percentages.

  • As a class determine the percentage of the world’s population that lives in each section. Students will be based on an individual country. For example, 2 of the 5 students in MDC might be labeled U.S.A.

  • Discuss results. Was the outcome what you expected? Any surprises? What does it mean to be developed as a country?


Where are mdcs and ldcs distributed
Where are MDCs and LDCs Distributed?

  • More developed regions

    • North America and Europe

    • Other MDCs with high HDI = Russia, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand

  • Less developed regions

    • Latin America = highest HDI among LDCs

    • Southwest Asia, Southeast Asia, Central Asia = similar HDI

    • South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa = low levels of development


Location of more less developed countries
Location of more/less developed countries

  • Countries are categorized into 9 regions

    • Based on their development

    • Japan and South Pacific aren’t part of the 9

  • North-south Split

    • Circle the earth at 30º

    • Above 30º=MDC (for the most part) South=LDC



November 18 2013 ch 9 key issue 1

Today in Class:

Students will color and label on maps, where the MDCs and LDCs are located.

Students will work on worksheet, comparing LDCs and MDCs.


More developed regions
More Developed regions

ANGLO-AMERICA (HDI .94)

  • USA/CANADA

    • English 1st lang. & most adhere to Christianity

    • Some cultural tension (race and religion)

    • Abundance of natural resources (decline of manu)

    • Leader in financial, mgmt, & high tech services

    • Big promoter and supplier of entertainment/leisure

    • World’s most important food exporter


More developed regions1
More developed regions

WESTERN EUROPE (HDI .93)

  • Indo-European languages & Christianity

    • Conflict arise over cultural identities

    • Competition among nationalities causes WWI & WWII

    • Influx of Muslims and Hindus spark pop growth

    • Highest level of development (exclude S Italy, Portugal, Spain and Greece)

    • Importers of food, energy minerals

    • Worlds largest and richest economic market


More developed regions2
More developed regions

EASTERN EUROPE (HDI .80)

  • Only region to decline since UN created the index in ’90

    • Declining to Latin American level (LDC) due to communism

    • “Iron Curtain” 15º E longitude

    • Initially mass increase in per capita GDP ($100s1000s)

    • Communism didn’t cater to poor/agricultural societies

  • Gosplan: 5 year, 3 step economic plan

    • 1st: heavy industry-iron, steel, machine tools, weapons

    • 2nd: disperse production to the east (= development)

    • 3rd: Locate manu facilities near resources, not markets



More developed regions3
More developed regions

EASTERN EUROPE (HDI .80)

  • Abandon communist economic structure

    • Outdated equip, import food, impossible targets,

    • Lacked basic industry needs: clothes, cars, housing

  • Eastern Countries bordering W Europe

    • Easier transition to the market economy


More developed regions4
More developed regions

JAPAN (HDI .94)

  • Remarkable development despite natural resources

    • A world leader in steel prod. yet imports all coal and iron

    • 1 asset: abundance of ppl willing to work for low wages

  • Sell product overseas for cheaper than domestic co.

    • THEN specialize in high-valued products: electronics

  • Spend 2x more on R&D than the U.S.

    • Rigorous edu & training programs for skilled labor


More developed regions5
More developed regions

SOUTH PACIFIC (HDI .87)

  • High HDI but not as relative in global econ.

    • Smaller pop

  • Comparable to most other MDC HDIs


Bellwork 11 21
Bellwork: 11/21

  • What does Gender Inequality mean?


Today in class
Today in Class:

  • There will be a physical features map quiz of Africa.

  • Next, we will head to the computer lab to look at HDI information.


11 22 today in class
11/22- Today in class

Students will work on HDI assignment- referencing cia.gov.


Human development index hdi http hdr undp org en statistics hdi
Human Development Index: HDIhttp://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/hdi/



Hdi only includes income from the formal market reported to the government pay taxes
HDI only includes income from the formal market. Reported to the government, pay taxes.

Formal Market: Ecuador

Informal Market: Ecuador


Hdi does not include income from the informal market not reported to the government no taxes paid
HDI does not include income from the informal market. Not reported to the government, no taxes paid.

Formal Market: Brazil

Informal Market: Brazil


Bellwork 12 2
BELLWORK: 12/2 reported to the government, no taxes paid.

Students will watch TED TALK, what does the Washing Machine symbolize?


Http www gapminder org videos hans rosling and the magic washing machine
http://www.gapminder.org/videos/hans-rosling-and-the-magic-washing-machine/http://www.gapminder.org/videos/hans-rosling-and-the-magic-washing-machine/


Models of development
MODELS of DEVELOPMENThttp://www.gapminder.org/videos/hans-rosling-and-the-magic-washing-machine/


Rostow and his model
ROSTOW and His Modelhttp://www.gapminder.org/videos/hans-rosling-and-the-magic-washing-machine/

  • The work of American Walt W. Rostow

  • Rostow is an economic historian

  • Countries can be placed in one of five categories in terms of its stage of growth


November 18 2013 ch 9 key issue 1

  • How do countries develop?http://www.gapminder.org/videos/hans-rosling-and-the-magic-washing-machine/

  • If we can understand how development occurs, strategies can be adopted to help countries to develop


Students will create a matrix of rostow s stages of development
STUDENTS Will Create a Matrix of Rostow’s Stages of Development

  • Traditional Society

  • Characterised by

    • subsistence economy – output not traded or recorded

    • existence of barter

    • high levels of agriculture and labour intensive agriculture


November 18 2013 ch 9 key issue 1

2. Pre-conditions: Development

  • Development of mining industries

  • Increase in capital use in agriculture

  • Necessity of external funding

  • Some growth in savings and investment


November 18 2013 ch 9 key issue 1

3. Take off: Development

  • Increasing industrialisation

  • Further growth in savings and investment

  • Some regional growth

  • Number employed in agriculture declines


November 18 2013 ch 9 key issue 1

4. Drive to Maturity: Development

  • Growth becomes self-sustaining – wealth generation enables further investment in value adding industry and development

  • Industry more diversified

  • Increase in levels of technology utilised


November 18 2013 ch 9 key issue 1

5. Development High mass consumption

  • High output levels

  • Mass consumption of consumer durables

  • High proportion of employment in service sector


Country analysis and comparisson
Country Analysis and Comparisson Development

  • http://www.bized.co.uk/educators/16-19/economics/development/activity/models.htm


Models of development market based
Models of Development: Development Market Based


Models of development rostow international trade approach
Models of Development Development Rostow: International Trade Approach



Models of development1
Models of Development Development

  • Development through self-sufficiency

    • Characteristics:

      • Pace of development = modest

      • Distribution of development = even

      • Barriers are established to protect local business

        • Three most common barriers = (1) tariffs, (2) quotas, and (3) restricting the number of importers

      • Two major problems with this approach:

        • Inefficient businesses are protected

        • A large bureaucracy is developed


Development through international trade
Development through international trade Development

  • Examples of international trade approach

    • The “four Asian dragons”: Singapore, Hong Kong, Taiwan, South Korea

    • Petroleum-rich Arabian Peninsula states

      Semi-Peripheral States

  • Three major problems:

    • Uneven resource distribution

    • Increased dependence on MDCs

    • Market decline



Models of economic development wallerstein s world system analysis
Models of Economic Development Development Wallerstein’s World System Analysis

1. Core: High Income

High use of technology

High % of tertiary activities

High levels of Education by the majority of the population

OECD countries G8

2. Semi-Periphery: used to be peripheral states

Increased economic development

BRICS

3. Periphery: Low Income

Low use of technology

High % of primary activities

Low levels of education by the majority of the population


Core and periphery model north south divide
Core and Periphery Model: Development North South Divide


November 18 2013 ch 9 key issue 1

BRICS: Brazil, Russia, India, China Development South Africa added in 2010G8: Top State economiesCanada, France, Germany, Italy, U.K., U.S.(Core) Mexico recently admitted (semi-periphery)




What is being done to increase development now united nations millennium development goals
What is being done to increase development now? Development United Nations Millennium Development Goals


December 3 2013 http www youtube com watch v jbksrlysojo
December 3, 2013 Development http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jbkSRLYSojo


Students will read article 12 3
Students will read article: 12/3 Development

Fair Trade and the Food Movement

http://freakonomics.com/2010/06/30/fair-trade-and-the-food-movement/?_r=0


Why do ldcs face obstacles to development
Why Do LDCs Face Obstacles to Development? Development

  • Development through self-sufficiency

    • Characteristics:

      • Pace of development = modest

      • Distribution of development = even

      • Barriers are established to protect local business

        • Three most common barriers = (1) tariffs, (2) quotas, and (3) restricting the number of importers

      • Two major problems with this approach:

        • Inefficient businesses are protected

        • A large bureaucracy is developed


Why do ldcs face obstacles to development1
Why Do LDCs Face Obstacles to Development? Development

  • Development through international trade

    • Rostow’s model of development

    • Examples of international trade approach

      • The “four Asian dragons”

      • Petroleum-rich Arabian Peninsula states

    • Three major problems:

      • Uneven resource distribution

      • Increased dependence on MDCs

      • Market decline


Why do ldcs face obstacles to development2
Why Do LDCs Face Obstacles to Development? Development

  • International trade approach triumphs

    • The path most commonly selected by the end of the twentieth century

    • Countries convert because evidence indicates that international trade is the more effective path toward development

      • Example: India

    • World Trade Organization

    • Foreign direct investment


Triumph of international trade approach
Triumph of International Trade Approach Development

Figure 9-28

Figure 9-27


Foreign direct investment
Foreign Direct Investment Development

Figure 9-30


Why do ldcs face obstacles to development3
Why Do LDCs Face Obstacles to Development? Development

  • Financing development

    • LDCs require money to fund development

    • Two sources of funds:

      • Loans

        • The World Bank and the IMF

        • Structural adjustment programs

      • Foreign direct investment from transnational corporations


Debt as a percentage of income
Debt as a Percentage of Income Development

Figure 9-31


Why do ldcs face obstacles to development4
Why Do LDCs Face Obstacles to Development? Development

  • Fair trade approach

    • Products are made and traded in a way that protects workers and small businesses in LDCs

    • Two sets of standards

      • Fair trade producer standards

      • Fair trade worker standards

    • Producers and workers usually earn more

    • Consumers usually pay higher prices