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Quality is Free. Philip Crosby 1979. Amazon.com. Quality is free What costs money are the unquality things All the actions that involve not doing job right the first time Muda ( 大野耐一). Top management’s responsibility to Quality

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quality is free

Quality is Free

Philip Crosby



Quality is free
    • What costs money are the unquality things
      • All the actions that involve not doing job right the first time
      • Muda (大野耐一)
Top management’s responsibility to Quality

“Top management may or may not realize what has to be done to achieve quality”

      • Ex: 家長 vs. 孩子的學習

“Or worse, they may feel, mistakenly, that they do understand what has to be done. Those types can cause the most harm.”

Quality Control
    • Measurement
      • Go
      • No-Go
Quality = Prevention

“Why spend all this time finding and fixing and fighting when you can prevent the incident in the first place?”

Culture make quality last forever
    • Firefighting would have to be replaced with defect prevention
    • Quality would have to be recognized as a genuine “first among equals”
      • Labor, material, money, machines, …
    • The habit of doing things right the first time had to become routine
    • The whole thing had to happen within the units
      • 所有部門皆須具備這些文化特質
tools for quality system
Quality control


Quality engineering

Supplier quality


Product qualification



Consumer affairs

Quality improvement

Tools for quality system
fundamentals for quality system
Fundamentals for quality system
  • Management participation & attitude
  • Professional quality management
  • Original programs
  • Recognition
1. Management participation & attitude
  • “Participation” rather than “support”
    • Right attitude about quality
    • Right understanding about quality
      • Ex: ISO 9000 系列
        • 說一套、做一套
        • 經理人自己都不相信
Erroneous “conventional wisdom”
    • Quality mean Goodness
    • Unmeasurable
    • Error is inevitable
    • People just don’t care about doing good work
  • Real Life Quality
    • Quality is conformance to requirement
    • Precisely measurable
    • Error is not required to fulfill the laws of nature
    • People work just as hard now as they ever did
ITT’s way of management participation
    • Conducted seminars throughout the ITT world on a regular basis.
      • Those managing directors and general managers

who had participated in programs

who had learned to understand quality properly

testified to others.

working on a group-y-group, unit-by-unit basis throughout the corporation.

2. Professional quality management
  • Allow quality professional to form forums to help each others
    • Ex: 品質學會
  • Institute quality college to teach quality tools
    • Certification
      • Ex: six sigma (Black belts, Green belts)
3. Original programs
  • Buck A Day (BAD)
    • Cost reduction idea program
  • Zero Defects – 30
    • 30 days programs for supervisors
  • Consumer Affairs
4. Recognition
  • Ring of Quality
    • Award presented
      • at formal dinner
      • by corporate president

Dignity & Respect

  • Cash and financial awards are not personal enough
erroneous assumptions
Erroneous assumptions
  • Quality means
    • Goodness
    • Luxury
    • Shininess

“Quality of Life”

      • Speakers
      • Listeners
Quality as

“Conformance to requirements”

    • Quality of life
      • Desirable income
      • Health
      • Population
        • Ex: 學校評鑑
erroneous assumptions1
Erroneous assumptions
  • Quality is
    • Intangible
    • Not measurable
Cost of quality
    • Best tool to measure quality
      • Prevention, Appraisal, Failure categories
    • Measurements should be displayed for all to see
      • Visible proof of improvement
      • Recognition of achievement
erroneous assumptions2
Erroneous assumptions
  • Economics of Quality
    • “Can’t afford to make it that good”

Evidence of “don’t understand quality”

It is always cheaper to do things right the first time

erroneous assumptions3
Erroneous assumptions
  • All the problems of quality are originated by the workers

Shop floor problems are easy to spot

    • Use “cost of quality” to direct attention
      • Prevention
      • Appraisal
      • Failure
erroneous assumptions4
Erroneous assumptions
  • Quality originates in the quality department
    • Root cause problems
      • Accounting problems
      • Manufacturing problems
      • Design problems
      • Housekeeping problems
Responsibility of Quality department to “problems”
    • Report results clearly & objectively
    • Lead the drive to develop a positive attitude toward quality improvement
    • Use educational program to be helpful
      • Zero defects
    • Should NOT do the job for others
quality management is
Quality Management is
  • Systematic way of guaranteeing that organized activities happen the way they are planed
  • Management discipline
    • Prevent problems from occurring
    • Create the attitudes and controls that make prevention possible
why quality management needed
Why quality management needed
  • Faceless end users

Sophisticated business world

    • Service providers never meet end users
      • 教授 vs. 畢業生的雇主
    • People who really control activities do so from office, laboratory, studios, and other remote places.