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Mediterranean Basin

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  1. Mediterranean Basin Post Classical Age: 1st Phase 600-1200

  2. EASTERN EUROPE

  3. West Asia, Near East, Middle East

  4. Western Europe

  5. West Africa

  6. Physical features: interaction between people & their environment Mediterranean Sea Sahara Desert Black Sea Niger River Tiber River Alps Balkans Tigris & Euphrates Nile Baltic Sea Atlantic Ocean Seine, Thames & Rhine Rivers Pyrenees Mountains Northern European Plain Dnieper & Danube Rivers Bosporus and Dardanelles Straits

  7. What happened toMediterranean Unity? Crises of Late Antiquity… Invasions

  8. Origins of Islamic Arab Culture & Conquest Challenge to the unity of the Mediterranean Basin

  9. Empire of Faith Arab Origins Influence of Muhammad

  10. Arab Culture • Arabian Peninsula (Desert) • Bedouin existence (nomadic) • Loyalty & identification with tribes & clans • Necessary for protection and survival • Oasis towns, Animal Husbandry, Trade • Trade with Persia, Byzantines, India • Camel indigenous Scarce resources conflict • Rivalry over available water • Differing degrees of wealth • Polytheistic deities (Ka'aba at Mecca) • Oral Traditions – Poetry – source of unity & identity

  11. Muhammad’s Life & Impact • Merchant of the Quraysh clan • Khadijah (wife of Muhammad) • Respected, worked as intermediary between rival clans • Vision of Angel Gabriel, one God, Allah • Followers small in number at first, grew overtime • Viewed as a threat by Umayyad clan as his influence grew • Forced to flee Mecca for Medina (hejira) in 622 • By 632, most of Peninsula, included the Umayyad were won over to the new faith

  12. The Spread of Islam During Muhammad's Lifetime

  13. Tenants of the Faith: the Five Pillars • One God – Allah, Muhammad is the prophet • Prayer towards Mecca 5x a day (salat) • Tax for Charity (zakat) • Fasting during the Holy Month of Ramadan Origins of Quran (Holy book) (Muhammad’s revelations) • Pilgrimage to Mecca(Hajj)

  14. What other religious developments were taking place? Great Schism, 1054

  15. Christian Church: Great Schism 1054 WesternChurch Pope Latin Language Eastern Church: Eastern Orthodoxy Patriarch and Emperor Greek language Who is the rightful head of the Church? Should icons be permitted? Latin or Greek? Excommunication!

  16. Main religion (more than 75%) Main religion (50% - 75%) Important minority religion (20% - 50%) Important minority religion (5% - 20%) Minority religion (1% - 5%)

  17. Traditional Animism Sub Saharan Africa

  18. Animistic Beliefs Beliefs & Practices varied … • Concept of Deity… • Many recognized single divine creator who sustained the world order indirectly • Lesser gods, spirits associated with natural forces participated directly & actively • Ancestors had the power to intervene in daily life • Practices… • Rituals to win favor of deities and ancestors • Prayers, animal sacrifices, ceremonies • Religious specialists (Priests) & diviners • Prescribe medicines, rituals to eliminate problems • Goals… • Emphasized morality & proper behavior • Local societies enforced rules as necessary for prosperity

  19. Religion & its Influence on law and society Eastern Europe Western Europe West Asia – North Africa West Africa

  20. What beliefs dominated the regions connected by the Mediterranean Basin and what political and social institutions enforced their doctrine? Eastern Christianity Western Christian Islam Animism

  21. Intellectual pursuits: art and education Gender Expectations Trade & Contact Thematic Overview 600-1200 Mediterranean Basin

  22. A visit to the Post Classical Zones of development in the Mediterranean Basin…

  23. Understanding Trade, Gender and the Intellectual life in Mediterranean Basin 600-1200

  24. What regions met with greatest success at trade, and least? What were the consequences of such successes and failures? Trade and Contact: Economic Activity Local Trade Long Distance Trade Purpose: for profit Process: Slow moving, Small amounts of luxury goods Animal drawn carts Human or wind powered ships Silk, spices, gold Widespread use of precious metals for money To transverse entire world trade routes was rare • Purpose: to maximize Usefulness, not for profit • Subsistence goods • Most people participated to some degree • Barter was commonplace • Function: Traditional based economic practices • Restricted trading partners • Established obligations

  25. Constantinople: Economic Success • Production: Abundant agricultural surpluses (grains) and Craft workers (Glassware, textiles, gems, jewelry, gold, silver) • “Clearinghouse” for trade for western part of Eurasia • Carpets from Persia, wool from Western Europe, timber, furs, slaves from Russia • Government Involvement • Government -wealth from control of trade • Regulated -prevent monopoly • Bezant: gold coin was standard currency for the Mediterranean for 500 years • Banking & partnerships helped to raise capital and limit liability

  26. Cultural, Artistic & Intellectual Pursuits Attitudes toward, institutions supporting and evidence of… • Architecture • Art • Education • Science • Math • Literature • Philosophy What regions experienced the greatest degree of innovation? How might this have been linked to religion, trade ,etc.? Comparison: Western Europe and Muslim World@15:55

  27. The Awakening No contradiction between faith and Knowledge • Hajj (movement & diffusion-geographical position of Muslim World) • Introduction of Paper – Books • Arabic language – unifying force Renaissance beginnings! • Sought out scientific understanding • Hindu Numerals • Algebra, Trigonometry • Greek Philosophers • Aristotle, Plato • Spirit of Inquiry • Scientific process • Medicine • Hospitals, concept of Germs, Anatomy, cataract surgery (modern camera)

  28. Key Cities • Baghdad • Rival of Athens or Rome • Jewel of the World • House of Wisdom, Academies, Libraries • Christians, Muslims, Jews • Cordoba, Spain • Rivaled Baghdad • Street lights, paved roads, hospitals, libraries, palaces, running water • Mosque at Cordoba • Only Christian World Contact

  29. Carolingian RenaissanceWas the Carolingian Renaissance truly a Renaissance? Intellectual and cultural revival of the 8th & 9th Century • Mostly targeted Monks and clergy • Palace & other schools meant to educate clergy • origins of the liberal arts • Standardized Medieval Latin • Created new writing system (minuscule)

  30. 10th century text written in Carolingian minuscules

  31. Gender Expectations • Legal rights- property, marriage, family • Opportunities for public participation, education and occupation • Cultural expectations for dress, movement, contact • Historical and cultural roots of treatment and attitudes towards women Was public perception different than reality? How did the establishment of gender rules cross regional boundaries?

  32. According to the Quran … Rights & obligations for both in marriage Equal access to salvation Dowries (free gift) Child bearing crucial role Wives share property Obedience to husband Punishments for indecency Provisions for wife in case of divorce or death of husband Polygamy (sake of protection) In Practice… Foundations of Patriarchal society Shariareinforced male dominance & inheritance Required legitimacy of heritance- guardians, chaperones Influence of Persia & Byzantine culture Veiling to ensure modesty Upper class women’s movement restricted The Role of Women

  33. Conclusions: “… It is also relevant to emphasize that although Islamic laws marked a distinct decline, a Greek, a Roman, and a Christian period had already brought about major losses in women’s rights and status. In effect, Islam merely continued a restrictive trend already established by the successive conquerors of Egypt and the eastern Mediterranean…” –Leila Ahmed, Women and Gender in Islam