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Chemical Reactions:. Reactants change chemical and physical properties. …. to become new substances made from the same elements; these are called products. When you write a chemical reaction…. The word equation explains what you begin with, and what you have at the end of the reaction.

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chemical reactions

Chemical Reactions:

Reactants change chemical and physical properties

…. to become new substances made from the same elements; these are called products.

when you write a chemical reaction
When you write a chemical reaction…
  • The word equation explains what you begin with, and what you have at the end of the reaction.
  • The reactants FORM, YIELD, or MAKE the products.
  • Physical states may be included:
    • (aq) = aqueous
    • (l) = liquid
    • (s) or (cr) = solid or crystalline
    • (g) = gaseous

Example: solid sodium reacts with water to form

aqueous sodium hydroxide and hydrogen gas.

types of reactions
Types of Reactions
  • Synthesis or Composition
  • Decomposition
  • Single Replacement
  • Double Displacement
  • Combustion Reactions

A + B  AB

HONCl BrIF

A new twist

To writing

Formulas.

These are

Always written

As diatomic

Molecules.

AB  A + B

AB + C  AC + B

AB + CD  AD + CB

CxHy + O2 CO2 + H2O

writing equations
Writing Equations:
  • Subscripts describe the chemical composition of the substance. These are determined by the electrons in the atoms and MAY NOT BE CHANGED when balancing equations.
  • Coefficients are used to balance equations.

2

2

Na + Cl2 NaCl

composition synthesis reactions
Composition/ Synthesis Reactions
  • A + X  AX
  • An element may react with oxygen to form the oxide (oxidation)

X

A

composition synthesis reactions1
Composition/ Synthesis Reactions
  • O2 + 2Mg  2 MgO
  • oxygen reacts with magnesium to form magnesium oxide

Mg

O

O

Mg

composition synthesis reactions2
Composition/ Synthesis Reactions
  • C + O2 CO2
  • carbon reacts with oxygen to form carbon dioxide

O

C

O

practice predicting reactions with oxide and sulfides
Practice predicting reactions with oxide and sulfides

O2

  • 2Fe + ____  2FeO
  • 4 Fe + 3 ___  2 Fe2O3
  • S8 + 8 O2  8 ____
  • 8 Ba + S8  8 ____

O2

SO2

BaS

more composition synthesis reactions
More Composition/ Synthesis Reactions
  • Fe + S  FeS
  • Iron reacts with sulfur to form iron (II) sulfide

S2-

S

Fe

Fe2+

more composition synthesis reactions1
More Composition/ Synthesis Reactions

Na

  • Na + S  Na2S
  • Sodium reacts with sulfur to form sodium sulfide

S2-

Na+

S

Na

Na+

metals react with halogens
Metals react with halogens.
  • 2Na + Cl2 2 NaCl
  • 2 Co + 3 F2  2 CoF3
  • 2 K + I2  2 KI
  • Sr + Br2  SrBr2
  • 2Mg + O2 2 MgO
synthesis reactions can also occur with oxides
Synthesis reactions can also occur with oxides.
  • Active metal oxides react with water to form hydroxides. ex:
  • CaO + H2O  Ca(OH)2
  • Many oxides of nonmetals react with water to form oxyacids. ex:
  • SO2 + H2O  H2SO3
  • Some metal oxides react with nonmetal oxides to form salts.
  • CaO + SO2  CaSO3
practice
Practice
  • Active metal oxides react with water to form hydroxides. ex:
  • MgO + H2O  ________
  • Many oxides of nonmetals react with water to form oxyacids. ex:
  • SO3 + H2O  _________
  • Some metal oxides react with nonmetal oxides to form salts.
  • Na2 O + 2NO2  ________

Mg(OH)2

H2SO4

2 NaNO3

decomposition ax a x
DecompositionAX  A + X
  • 2H2O  2H2 + O2

H

O

H

H

O

H

Electrolysis: decomposition of a substance

by an electric current.

decomposition ax a x1
DecompositionAX  A + X
  • 2HgO  2Hg + O2

Hg

O

This reaction

occurs when you

heat orange colored

mercury (II) oxide.

Silver mercury and

oxygen gas form.

Hg

O

decomposition of metal carbonates aco 3 ao co 2 g
Decompositionof metal carbonatesACO3 AO + CO2(g)
  • CaCO3 (s) CaO (s) + CO2(g)

O

Ca

This reaction

occurs when you

heat calcium carbonate.

calcium oxide and carbon

dioxide form.

C

O

O

decomposition of metal hydroxides aoh ao co 2 g
Decompositionof metal hydroxidesAOH  AO + CO2(g)
  • Ca(OH)2 (s) CaO (s) + H2O (g)

H

O

Ca

This reaction

occurs when you

heat calcium hydroxide

calcium oxide and water

form.

O

H

decomposition of metal chlorates aclo 3 acl o 2 g
Decomposition of metal chloratesAClO3 ACl + O2(g)
  • 2KClO3 (s) 2KCl (s) + 3O2(g)

O

O

Cl

Cl

K

K

O

O

This reaction

occurs when you

heat potassium chlorate.

potassium chloride and

oxygen form.

O

O

decomposition of acids h 2 co 3 aq h 2 o g co 2 g
Decomposition of acidsH2CO3 (aq) H2O (g) + CO2(g)

O

H

H

C

Carbonic acid

decomposes when

warmed.

water and

carbon dioxide form.

O

O

single displacement a bx ax b or y bx by x

O

O

O

O

O

O

N

N

N

N

N

N

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

Single DisplacementA+ BX AX + Bor:Y + BX  BY + X
  • Replacement of a metal in a compound by another metal.

2 Al (s) + 3Pb(NO3)2 3Pb +2 Al(NO3)3

Pb2+

Al

Pb2+

Al

Pb2+

single displacement a bx ax b or y bx by x1

O

O

O

O

O

O

N

N

N

N

N

N

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

Single DisplacementA+ BX AX + Bor:Y + BX  BY + X
  • Replacement of a metal in a compound by another metal.

2 Al (s) + 3Pb(NO3)2 3Pb +2 Al(NO3)3

Pb

Al3+

Al3+

Pb

Pb

single displacement a bx ax b or y bx by x2
Single DisplacementA+ BX AX + Bor:Y + BX  BY + X
  • Replacement of a hydrogen in a compound by a metal.

2 Na (s) + 2 H2O (l) 2 NaOH (aq) + H2(g)

H

O

Na

Na

H

H

O

H

single displacement a bx ax b or y bx by x3
Single DisplacementA+ BX AX + Bor:Y + BX  BY + X
  • Replacement of a hydrogen in a compound by a metal.

Mg (s) + 2 HCl (aq) MgCl2(aq) + H2(g)

Cl

Mg

H

Cl

H

single displacement a bx ax b or y bx by x4
Single DisplacementA+ BX AX + Bor:Y + BX  BY + X
  • Replacement of halogens

Cl2(g) + 2 KBr (aq) 2 KCl (aq) + Br2(g)

Br

Cl

K

Cl

Br

K

double replacement reactions double displacement

O

O

N

N

O

O

O

O

Double Replacement Reactions (double displacement)
  • Formation of a precipitate.
  • 2 KI (aq) + Pb(NO3)2 (aq)  PbI2 (s) + 2 KNO3 (aq)

I

Pb2+

I

K

K

double replacement reactions double displacement1
Double Replacement Reactions (double displacement)
  • Formation of a gas.
  • FeS (s) + 2 HCl(aq)  H2S (g) + FeCl2 (aq)

S

Fe2+

Cl

Cl

H

H

double replacement reactions double displacement2
Double Replacement Reactions (double displacement)
  • Formation of a water.
  • NaOH (s) + HCl(aq)  H2O (l) + NaCl2 (aq)

H

O

Na+

Cl

H

combustion reactions
Combustion Reactions
  • A substance combines with oxygen, releasing a large amount of energy in the form of light and heat.

2 H2 (g) + O2 (g)  2 H2O

O

H

O

H

H

H

combustion reactions1
Combustion Reactions
  • A substance combines with oxygen, releasing a large amount of energy in the form of light and heat.

C3H8 (g) +5 O2 (g)  4 H2O + 3 CO2

O

O

O

O

H

O

H

H

H

C

O

C

C

O

H

O

H

H

O

H

O

combustion reactions2
Combustion Reactions
  • A substance combines with oxygen, releasing a large amount of energy in the form of light and heat.

C3H8 (g) +5 O2 (g)  4 H2O + 3 CO2

O

O

H

C

O

O

H

H

H

O

H

H

O

C

H

O

O

C

O

O

H