Maritime Transportation on the Great Lakes and Dimensional Analysis Our lives would not be the same without them!
Largest Great Lake Freighter “Laker” • Paul R. Tegurtha • Christened April 25, 1981as the William J. De Lancey • Cost to build: $60 million • Length: 1013.5 ft • Cargo Capacity: 68000 metric tons
Commodities on the GL Seaway • The BIG Three: • iron ore (50 million tons/year) • limestone (25 million tons/year) • coal (20 million tons/year) • Western Coal (low sulfur) • Eastern Coal (high sulfur) • EPA Regulations require a mix! • Others: Cement, salt, sand, grain, and gypsum, and more • 63 Commercial Ports http://www.lcaships.com/industry/ http://www.dlund.20m.com/images_newest/Taconite.JPG
Interstate and International Impacts • Policy and Procedures of Maritime Transport divided amongst Canada and the United States • Canada – 2 Provinces • United States – 8 States • 227,000 jobs in the U.S. and Canada • $14.1 billion in salary and wagesper year • $33.5 billion in business revenue • $4.6 billion in federal, state/provincial and local taxes • 164 million metric tons of essential raw materials and finished products • North American farmers, steel producers, construction firms, food manufacturers, and power generators http://www.marinedelivers.com/press-releases/us-media/year-date-total-cargo-shipments-through-seaway-3-percent
You need to transport 18,000 metric tons of coal. What mode of transportation do you use? • 18, 000 tonnesx1 vessel = 1 vessel 18,000 tonnes • 18, 000 tonnes x1Rail Car = 180 Rail Cars 100 tonnes • 18,000 tonnes x1 Semi = 692 Semi-trucks 26 tonnes
Do these values match those in previous slide? How will you solve to verify? www.greatlakes-seaway.com
In 2009, what was the average household energy consumption in BTUs? Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Residential Energy Consumption Survey.
What portion of a freighter does the average household need per year? • Answer from previous slide is 90 million BTU, what is this in scientific notation? • 9.0 x 107BTU • What else do we need to know? • Energy from a coal plant: 10,444 BTU/KWH • (British Thermal Units per Kilowatt-hour) • 0.9 KWH/lb of coal • If ports are properly dredged, a Laker can carry 70,000 American tons of coal
SET IT UP – Conversion factors are provided, START WITH GIVEN 9.0x107 BTU x1 KWH x1 lbx1 ton x1 freighter = 10,444 BTU 0.9 KWH 2,000 lb 70,000 ton ANSWER = 6.839 x 10-5 freighters 100,000 Homes on average would need 6.839 Freighters of Coal!!
How many tons of coal does the average household need per year? • 9.0x107 BTU x1 KWH x1 lbx1 tons x = • 10,444 BTU 0.9 KWH 2,000 lb • ANSWER: 4.787 tons Wow! That’s a lot of coal!
Graphic Courtesy U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Detroit District. http://www.lcaships.com/environment/
Fuel Needed on GL Seaway to move 50,000 ton from Duluth to Detroit • The aquatic distance from Duluth to Detroit is 873 kilometers. 1.6 km=1 mile • To Transport 1 ton of cargo from Duluth to Detroit • 873 km x1 mile x1 gal fuel = 0.899 gallons 1.6 km 607 miles • Answer to transport 50,000 tons • 44,950 gallons http://techalive.mtu.edu/glmri/ShipsTravel.htm
What are the Greenhouse gas emissions for the trip? • Use our trip taking 50,000 tons of cargo from Duluth to Detroit • 38.3 lbs of GHG per 1000 ton-cargo-miles • So for 50,000 tons this is 1,915,000 lbs of GHG • 873 km x1 mile = 1397 miles • 1.6 km • 1397 x 1,915,000 = 2.68 x 109 lb of GHG • REMEMBER, THIS WOULD BE AT LEAST 6-7 TIMES MORE EMISSIONS IF DONE BY TRUCK!
CO2 Emissions per Gallon of Fuel • 0.010230 metric tons of CO2 per gallon for diesel • 0.000055 metric tons of CO2per gallon for natural gas • NEW Advancements is to work towards converting the freighters over to natural gas • First as early as Spring 2015 Values: http://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/air/permit_register/ghg/GHG_transp.html
What are some other things to consider about maritime transport? • Time? • Money?
OTHER AMAZING FACTS • A 1,000- foot Laker can transport enough iron pellets to make 15,000 automobiles. • A Laker can last 100 years compared to a Saltie’s 30 years. • 90% of the United States iron ore passes through the Poe lock at Sault Ste. Marie, MI • The total drop in elevation from Lake Superior to the Atlantic Ocean is 597 feet • For every $100 Americans spend $20 is involved in cargo on GL-St.Lawrence Seaway http://www.great-lakes.net/teach/business/ship/ship_5.html
How do the Locks Work? • http://techalive.mtu.edu/glmri/images/lock.gif http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=soo+locks+images&id=695496971DFACF4542EE31DF3651832BCCF51771&FORM=IQFRBA#view=detail&id=95FBA73F9597490362CA04C29A1F16F175BD8D36&selectedIndex=6
References Haen, Dean. Manager of Port of Green Bay, July 23, 2013 Hawker, J. Scott and Winebrake, James. (September 2009). GLMRI University Affiliates Meeting, Duluth, MN. ww.glmri.org/downloads/2009Reports/affiliates Mtg/Winbrake&Hawker.pdf Research and Traffic Group. (January 2013). Environmental and Social Impacts of Marine Transport. www.greatlakes-seaway.com/en/pdf/Impacts-Full_En.pdf The Environmental and Social Impacts of Marine Transport in the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Seaway Region (PDF, 28 pages)