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And so, carbon can bond to other carbons and elements such as H, N, O, and P to form large complex molecules. Carbon atoms form 4 bonds Biology 2.3 Carbon Compounds Why carbon? Read p44 Draw two diagrams to show why an entire branch of chemistry is devoted to studying carbon
Macromolecules Macromolecules Smaller units, or monomers, join together to form polymers. Monomers in a polymer may be identical, or different.
Four major groups of organic compounds found in living things are: • Carbohydrates • Lipids • Nucleic acids • Proteins
Carbohydrates can form large polymers Here is an illustration of the polymer, starch. Biology 2.3 Carbohydrates p45 Important source of energy for living things Composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen Why is it called a carbohydrate? Carbon (carbo-) and water (H2O) hydrate What is the monomer of which starch is made?
Made of carbon, hydrogen and water Carbohydrates •glucose energy for most all cells •starch - a long chain of glucose
Not soluble in water Lipids Made mostly of carbon and hydrogen Fats, oils, waxes, and steroids Important for Energy Storage Waterproof membranes A typical fat is made of 3 fatty acid molecules attached to glycerol
Not soluble in water Lipids A typical fat is made of 3 fatty acid molecules attached to glycerol
Macromolecules containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus • Monomer= nucleotide Nucleic Acids
Macromolecules containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus Nucleic Acids Store and transmit genetic information DNA = deoxyribonucleic acid RNA= ribonucleic acid
Macromolecules containing mostly nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen Proteins Made up of Amino Acids
Made up of Amino Acids Proteins Amino Acids have Amino group (NH2) on one end, Carboxyllic acid group (COOH) on the other end
The instructions for arranging many amino acids into a protein are coded in your DNA. Proteins
Some proteins control the rate of reactions and regulate cell processes (enzymes) • Some proteins are used to form bones and muscles. • Other proteins transport substances into or out of cells or help to fight disease. Proteins
Four levels of organization: • Order of amino acids. • The amino acids within a chain can be twisted or folded. • The chain itself is folded. • If a protein has more than one chain, each chain has a specific arrangement in space. Proteins