LD/ADHD Initiative Executive Functions Modules Session Four Strategy Sheets Secondary
Executive Functions Session 4 Strategy Sheet SecondaryHow Do I Develop Self-Monitoring Skills? Definition: Self-Monitoring Impact: Self-Monitoring Tends to act without sufficient forethought Interrupts with own thoughts and comments Works quickly and oftentimes is messy Does not listen to others Has difficulty following directions and does not do assigned tasks carefully • Checks work, keeps track of own behavior and learning • Finishes a task to ensure attainment of goal • Understands consequence of his/her actions and learning • Puts the “brakes” on one’s own behavior and thinking LD/ADHD Initiative Department of Special Education and Student Services, HCPSS What might this look like in your home?
Executive Functions Session 4 Strategy Sheet SecondaryHow Do I Develop Self-Monitoring Skills? Environmental Supports Teaching Strategy Use verbal mediation to talk through a task to help your child direct their focus to their own behavior or work Cue and encourage your child to reflect on “what works”, “what doesn’t work” and “what do I try differently” Model for your child how to accept criticism without becoming angry or defensive and have them practice Ask your child to put away materials before the next activity and get materials ready for the next activity, then fade when they are ready for less direct support Build in editing or reviewing as part of every task in order to increase awareness of strengths and needs Teach how to use a Goal-Plan-Do-Review sequence for goal setting and/or self-monitoring independent work or long-term projects Ask your child to predict how well they will do on a particular task and compare prediction with outcome to increase awareness of strengths and needs Encourage charting of performance and/or behavior in order to provide tangible record of activity for ongoing self-monitoring Have your child develop error-monitoring checklists and prompt them to use them Generate a set of questions with your child to help them manage their behavior when confronted with a problem • Provide time to set goals. Goals should be set for accuracy rather than speed • Model learning behaviors • Prepare your child for changes in the schedule or agenda • Provide time for gathering of materials before beginning key directions or instructions • Encourage peer/sibling support in monitoring academic work or learning behaviors • Monitor when your child moves to start the next activity, and tell how long they have to transition • Ask your child to check visually posted agenda/directions/schedules • Assign your child a peer/sibling model and cue him/her to check in with his/her support person • Go over agenda/schedule that is posted in your home • Prompt your child to use analytic skills to assess how they are performing on assigned tasks; • Embed questions designed to elicit meta-cognition into daily instructions i.e., how did you solve that problem, can you think of another way of doing that • Build error monitoring into task assignments i.e., have your child show that they have checked their work, or fill out proofreading checklists • Give your child assignments requiring them to use metacognition skills i.e., ask them to give themselves a grade on an assignment and explain why they deserve that grade LD/ADHD Initiative Department of Special Education and Student Services, HCPSS What might this look like in your home?
Executive Functions Session 4 Strategy Sheet SecondaryHow Do I Develop Attention Skills? Definition: Attention Impact: Attention The student can not focus their attention on a task and keep focusing as long as necessary Sometimes the student is selective about what they attend to or for how long they attend • Sustaining attention on tasks that are not of high interest • Screens out distractions • Knows what to focus on and what to ignore LD/ADHD Initiative Department of Special Education and Student Services, HCPSS What might this look like in your home?
Executive Functions Session 4 Strategy Sheet SecondaryHow Do I Develop Attention Skills? Environmental Supports Teaching Strategy Teach self-monitoring/peer coaching Give nonverbal cues for attention – hand on the shoulder, tap on his/her workspace Devise signals to emphasize instructions (“John/Jane, this is an instruction . . . “) Have your child repeat directions back Help them become more aware of their capacity to sustain attention and teach them how to break a task down into pieces they can manage based on their own capacity Provide your child with motor/movement breaks Have the your child identify something to look forward to Help your child make a work plan, cue them to follow the plan the have devised and reinforce them for following the plan successfully Gradually transfer the responsibility for making the plan to your child themselves • Reduce distractions • Cue to attend (look, listen, respond) • Build in variety/choice • Choose best time of day, when possible for tasks requiring more concentration • Have your child place themselves in proximity to your instruction and away from distraction – open door, shelves, windows, certain distractors • Post stop and start times to help your child persist with tasks long enough to complete them • Use a visual timer to motivate your child to complete assignments/tasks before the timer goes off • Schedule the most demanding academic/household tasks for the beginning of class or period • Have more rewarding/interesting/engaging activities occur after a more challenging task to keep motivation high • Break tasks into subtasks and provide shortened breaks after each subtask • Provide attention to your child, frequent feedback, and immediate reinforcement • Provide your child something to look forward to that can be done as soon as task is finished LD/ADHD Initiative Department of Special Education and Student Services, HCPSS What might this look like in your home?
Executive Functions Session 4 Strategy Sheet SecondaryHow Do I Develop Inhibition Skills? Definition: Inhibition Impact: Inhibition Students call out Can not stop their behavior at the appropriate time, including stopping actions and thoughts Are seen as wild, restless, impulsive Often are unable to control their words and bodies so they need more supervision than others • Controls impulses • Appropriately stops and modulates ones own behavior at the proper time or proper context LD/ADHD Initiative Department of Special Education and Student Services, HCPSS What might this look like in your home?
Executive Functions Session 4 Strategy Sheet SecondaryHow Do I Develop Inhibition Skills? Environmental Supports Teaching Strategy Use a story/graphic with pictures of your child or a favorite character following rules/ expectations related to inhibition Teach wait/stop Teach your child to silently count to five before responding verbally to a question Teach delayed gratification by by using formal periods for things he/she wants to do or have (first/then) Prepare your child for situations that require impulse control by reviewing them in advance, such as: a replacement for calling-out, then use immediate reinforcement and finally fade support Have your child set goals for accuracy of work and/or effort as opposed to speed Structure your verbal questions to limit length of your child’s response (i.e. “Tell me two things you know about ______ ) Explain to tour child the skill being worked on and your understanding of intent of the behavior. Select a replacement behavior that meets the same need Walk your child through the process, having them practice the skills in a contrived situation, then when successful have the them use the skill in a natural environment, then reinforce immediately for using the skill • Post household rules and review regularly • Restrict access to preferred or distracting objects, activities and/or siblings • Cue your child by developing a nonverbal signal that can be used discretely to remind them to not call out, get out of seat, request assistance from you • Remind your child prior to a situation of the behaviors you are working on related to inhibition • Keep free tme well structured, consistent and adult-directed • Increase external controls by restricting access to settings or situations in which your child can get into trouble • Increase supervision by physically being within close proximity to your child • Find ways to cue your child to control impulses i.e., posting and reviewing household rules or asking your child, “what behaviors are we working on?” to remind the them to exhibit self-control in specific situations LD/ADHD Initiative Department of Special Education and Student Services, HCPSS What might this look like in your home?