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  1. Need Knowledge Base • Stress • one of the major factors contributing to disease • Often untreatable because it is a mental disorder • Able to effects all bodily systems • Chinese Medicine may help combat stress where Western Medicine cannot http://www.arltma.com/StressDoc.htm Literature Review http://www.umm.edu/altmed/articles/ginger-000246.htm Purpose The purpose of this experiment was to asses different Chinese medicine’s effectively at combating stress in daphnia magna Hypothesis H(0): The null hypothesis states that Chinese medicine will have no effect on stressed Daphnia magna heart rate. H(A): The alternate hypothesis states that Chinese medicine will have a beneficial effect on stressed Daphnia magna.

  2. N=10 Graph 1: Comparing the means of central tendency of the Non-Caffeinated groups. The heart rate ranges from 234 beats/min. in the negative control to 445 beats/min. in the Ginseng group. The largest standard deviation was 42 beats/min. in the Ginger group. The Effects of Chinese medicine on cardiovascular stress of Daphnia magna Variables N=30 Control N=30 Chinese Ginseng (Panax ginseng) N=10 Ginger (Zingiberofficinale) N=10 American Ginseng (Panaxquinquefolius) N=10 Control0 3 Herbal medicines N=10 Control Caffeine N=10 Control0 N=10 N=10 Measuring heart-rate using fluorescent Graph 1: Comparing the means of central tendency of the Non-Caffeinated groups. The heart rate ranges from 234 beats/min. in the negative control to 445 beats/min. in the Ginseng group. The largest standard deviation was 42 beats/min. in the Ginger group. Statistical analysis using SPSS and ANOVA (p˂.05) Statistical analysis using ANOVA followed by a Scheffe post-Hoc test at p<.05 revealed significant differences between each caffeinated group and their respective controls except for the Ginger groups where p=.59. In the rest of the groups,the largest p-value was 6 x 10-5 between the two American Ginseng groups. N=10 Graph 3: Comparison of Heart rates between Caffeinated and Uncaffeinated groups. The difference ranges from 317 to 354 beats/min. with a difference of 37 beats/min. and 234 and 408 beats/min. in the negative and positive control groups with a difference of 174 beats/min.

  3. Discussion Daphnia magna under 40xmagnification Heart Daphnia magna under 250x magnification Photos taken by authors • The purpose of this experiment was to observe the effect of Chinese herbal medicine (INSERT SCIENTIFIC NAMESSS) on the cardiovascular stress of Daphnia magna • The alternate hypothesis was supported in heart rate comparisons between each of the non-caffeinated variables and the negative control as well as between the caffeinated groups and the caffeine control with the exception of the Ginger groups • Results were comparable to _____________ • Chinese and American Ginseng extracts can decrease heart rate of Daphnia magna under cardiovascular stress induced through caffeine. • Limitation was the large sample size Future Studies • Using chemical compounds found in ginger and ginseng • Long term effects of extracts • Testing on higher mammals with systems relating more directly to humans Conclusion • Aside from the control the Chinese Ginseng group had the largest significant difference between its caffeinated and uncaffeinated group and the American Ginseng group had less of a significant difference between groups. • Chinese Ginseng, and American Ginseng extracts significantly lower the heart rate of Daphnia magna under cardiovascular stressin both caffeinated and uncaffeinated conditions. Bibliography