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Vaidya et al. 2009 Mean heart rate (bpm) with standard error in for D.magna administered distilled water (controls), 3.62 μM and 7.24 μM dilutions of curcumin, 4.28 mMdiphenhydramine (DPHM) and co-administered 4.28 mM DPHM and both curcumin concentrations.
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The purpose of this experiment was to observe the effect of inducing cardiovascular stress through caffeine on the heart-rate of Daphniamagna simultaneously exposed to ginger, Chinese ginseng, or American ginseng extract.
H(0): The null hypothesis states that American Ginseng (Panaxquinquefolius) will have no effect on stressed Daphnia magna heart rate.
H(A): The alternate hypothesis states that American Ginseng (Panaxquinquefolius) will have a beneficial effect on stressed Daphnia magna.
H(0): The null hypothesis states that Chinese Ginseng (Panax ginseng)will have no effect on stressed Daphnia magna heart rate.
H(A): The alternate hypothesis states that Chinese Ginseng (Panax ginseng)will have a beneficial effect on stressed Daphnia magna.
H(0): The null hypothesis states that Ginger (Zingiberofficinale) will have no effect on stressed Daphnia magna heart rate.
H(A): The alternate hypothesis states that Ginger (Zingiberofficinale) will have a beneficial effect on stressed Daphnia magna.
Effect on Daphnia magna Heartrate
(Panaxquinquefolius) and caffeine's effect on daphnia heartrate
(Zingiberofficinale) and caffeine's effect on daphnia heartrate
Chinese Ginseng (Panax ginseng)
Daphnia magna from Carolina Biological(N=10)
Chinese Ginseng (Panax ginseng) and caffeine's effect on daphnia heartrate
Culturing of Daphnia magna in aquatic tanks
Statistical analysis using SPSS and ANOVA (p˂.05)
Video recording of heart-rate using Sony Cybershot and fluorescent microscope
Counting of heart-rate
Graph 1: Comparing the means of central tendency of the Non-Caffeinated groups. The heart rate ranges from 234 beats/min. in the negative control to 445 beats/min. in the Ginseng group. The largest standard deviation was 42 beats/min. in the Ginger group.
Graph 2: Comparing the means of central tendency of the Caffeinated groups. The heart rate ranges from 234 beats/min. in the negative control to 445 beats/min. in the Ginseng group. The largest standard deviation was 42 beats/min. in the Ginger group.
Graph 3: Comparison of Heart rates between Caffeinated and Uncaffeinated groups. The difference ranges from 317 to 354 beats/min. with a difference of 37 beats/min. and 234 and 408 beats/min. in the negative and positive control groups with a difference of 174 beats/min.
Statistical analysis using ANOVA followed by a Scheffe post-Hoc test at p<.05 revealed significant differences between each caffeinated group and their respective controls. The largest significant p-value was 6 x 10-5 between the two American Ginseng groups. The caffeinated Chinese and American Ginseng groups showed a significant decrease in average heart rate compared to the caffeine control, and the caffeinated Chinese Ginseng grouped even showed a significant decrease in heart rate with its uncaffeinated group.
Daphnia magna under 40xmagnification
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Daphnia magna under 250x magnification
Photos taken by authors