slide1 n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Need PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Need

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 3

Need - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 108 Views
  • Uploaded on

Need . http://www.cdc.gov/Features/dsHeatRelatedDeaths/. Knowledge Base. Literature Review. http://www.drugs.com/npp/ginger.html. http://tangcenter.uchicago.edu/herbal_resources/5.shtml.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Need' - cameo


Download Now An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide1
Need

http://www.cdc.gov/Features/dsHeatRelatedDeaths/

Knowledge Base

Literature Review

http://www.drugs.com/npp/ginger.html

http://tangcenter.uchicago.edu/herbal_resources/5.shtml

Vaidya et al. 2009 Mean heart rate (bpm) with standard error in for D.magna administered distilled water (controls), 3.62 μM and 7.24 μM dilutions of curcumin, 4.28 mMdiphenhydramine (DPHM) and co-administered 4.28 mM DPHM and both curcumin concentrations.

Li et al., in 2010 Qualitative data collection occurred through immunochemical staining at 0, 1, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours of exposure. Activity of the Nrf2 transcriptional factor was analyzed through ARE-luciferace reporter assay.

Purpose

The purpose of this experiment was to observe the effect of inducing cardiovascular stress through caffeine on the heart-rate of Daphniamagna simultaneously exposed to ginger, Chinese ginseng, or American ginseng extract.

Hypothesis

H(0): The null hypothesis states that American Ginseng (Panaxquinquefolius) will have no effect on stressed Daphnia magna heart rate.

H(A): The alternate hypothesis states that American Ginseng (Panaxquinquefolius) will have a beneficial effect on stressed Daphnia magna.

H(0): The null hypothesis states that Chinese Ginseng (Panax ginseng)will have no effect on stressed Daphnia magna heart rate.

H(A): The alternate hypothesis states that Chinese Ginseng (Panax ginseng)will have a beneficial effect on stressed Daphnia magna.

H(0): The null hypothesis states that Ginger (Zingiberofficinale) will have no effect on stressed Daphnia magna heart rate.

H(A): The alternate hypothesis states that Ginger (Zingiberofficinale) will have a beneficial effect on stressed Daphnia magna.

slide2

The Effects of Chinese medicine on cardiovascular stress of Daphnia magna

Control

N=30

Variables

N=30

Control0

Temperature

Effect on Daphnia magna Heartrate

N=40

American Ginseng

(Panaxquinquefolius) and caffeine's effect on daphnia heartrate

N=10

Ginger

(Zingiberofficinale) and caffeine's effect on daphnia heartrate

N=10

Control0

Chinese Ginseng (Panax ginseng)

N=10

Control0

American Ginseng

(Panaxquinquefolius)

N=10

Control0

N=10

Daphnia magna from Carolina Biological(N=10)

20C

N=10

25C

N=10

30C

N=10

35C

N=10

Control0

Caffeine

N=10

Control0

Ginger

(Zingiberofficinale) N=10

Chinese Ginseng (Panax ginseng) and caffeine's effect on daphnia heartrate

N=10

Culturing of Daphnia magna in aquatic tanks

Statistical analysis using SPSS and ANOVA (p˂.05)

Video recording of heart-rate using Sony Cybershot and fluorescent microscope

Counting of heart-rate

N=10

Graph 1: Comparing the means of central tendency of the Non-Caffeinated groups. The heart rate ranges from 234 beats/min. in the negative control to 445 beats/min. in the Ginseng group. The largest standard deviation was 42 beats/min. in the Ginger group.

N=10

Graph 2: Comparing the means of central tendency of the Caffeinated groups. The heart rate ranges from 234 beats/min. in the negative control to 445 beats/min. in the Ginseng group. The largest standard deviation was 42 beats/min. in the Ginger group.

Graph 3: Comparison of Heart rates between Caffeinated and Uncaffeinated groups. The difference ranges from 317 to 354 beats/min. with a difference of 37 beats/min. and 234 and 408 beats/min. in the negative and positive control groups with a difference of 174 beats/min.

N=10

Statistical analysis using ANOVA  followed by a Scheffe post-Hoc test at p<.05 revealed significant differences between each caffeinated group and their respective controls. The largest significant p-value was 6 x 10-5 between the two American Ginseng groups. The caffeinated Chinese and American Ginseng groups showed a significant decrease in average heart rate compared to the caffeine control, and the caffeinated Chinese Ginseng grouped even showed a significant decrease in heart rate with its uncaffeinated group.

discussion
Discussion

Daphnia magna under 40xmagnification

Heart

American Heart Association. "Congestive Heart Failure." American Heart Association. Web. 27 Jan. 2011. <http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=4585>.Avinash R. Vaidya1, Laura Gurenlian1, Lauren Brady1, Noelle Erin Romero1, and Rebecca Kohn1, Cardioactive effects of diphenhydramine and curcumin in Daphniamagna, Impulse: The Premier Journal for Undergraduate Publications in the Neurosciences 2009, vol 1,pg 1-12

Chang CH, Wang YM, Yang AH, Chiang SS. Rapidly progressive interstitial renal fibrosis associated with Chinese herbal medications. Am. J. Nephrol. 2001; 21: 441–8.

Geng Jun, et al. Clinical observation on Xue Fu Zhu Yu Tang's treatment for coronary heart disease. Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Application of TCM. 1999;15(2):43-44.

Heart, Download. "The Truth Behind Congestive Heart Failure | Heart Disease." Heart Information | Heart Diseases | Healthy Heart Tips & Guides. Web. 27 Jan. 2011. <http://www.downloadheart.us/the-truth-behind-congestive-heart-failure.html>.

Junxian Wang, Zongliang Lu, Jiamin Chi, Wenhua Wang, Meizhe Su, Wenrong Kou, Pulin, Lijiang Yu, Li Chen, Jia-Shi Zhu, Joseph Chang

Multicenter clinical trial of the serum lipid-lowering effects of a Monascuspurpureus (red yeast) rice preparation from traditional Chinese medicine, Current Therapeutic Research, Volume 58, Pages 964-978, December 1997

Joong-Ho Kwona, Jacqueline M. R. Bélanger, , b, J. R. Jocelyn Paréb and Varoujan A. Yaylayan, Application of the microwave-assisted process (MAP™) to the fast extraction of ginseng saponins, October 22 2003, Food Research International, vol 35, pgs 491-498

Kit, Wong Kiew. The Complete Book of Chinese Medicine: A Holistic Approach to Physical, Emotional and Mental Health. Brooklyn, NY: Cosmos Publishing, 2002.

Schmeiser HH, Bieler CA, Wiessler M, Van Ypersele de Strihou C, Cosyns JP. Detection of DNA adducts formed by aristolochic acid in renal tissue from patients with Chinese herbs nephropathy. Cancer Res. 1996; 56: 2025–8.

Solez K, Daugirdas J, Gregory MC et al. Is ‘Chinese herbs nephropathy’ a prejudicial term? [Comment]. Am. J. Kidney Dis. 2001; 38: 1141–2.

Tanaka A, Nishida R, Maeda K, Sugawara A, Kuwahara T. Chinese herb nephropathy in Japan presents adult-onset Fanconi's syndrome: Could different components of aristolochic acids cause a different type of Chinese herb nephropathy? Clin. Nephrol. 2000; 53: 301–6.

Tang, Gui Pi. "Abnormal Heart Beat." Chinese Medicine Cure. Web. 27 Jan. 2011. <http://chinesemedicinecure.com/node/713>.

Williams, Tom. Complete Illustrated Guide to Chinese Medicine: Using Traditional Chinese Medicine for Harmony of Mind and Body. New York: Thorsons, 2003.

"Graph 8 : Congestive Heart Failure." Home Of The Official New York State Hospital Report Card(sm). Web. 27 Jan. 2011. <http://www.myhealthfinder.com/newyork10/reg.php?table=08>.

Yang CS, Lin CH, Chang SH, Hsu HC. Rapidly progressive fibrosing interstitial nephritis associated with Chinese herbal drugs [Comment]. Am. J. Kidney Dis. 2000; 35: 313–18.

Daphnia magna under 250x magnification

Photos taken by authors

  • The purpose of this experiment was to observe the effect of Chinese herbal medicine (Panaxquinquefolius, Panax ginseng, and, Zingiberofficinale) on the cardiovascular stress of Daphnia magna
  • The alternate hypothesis was supported in heart rate comparisons between each of the non-caffeinated variables and the negative control as well as between the caffeinated groups and the caffeine control with the exception of the Ginger groups
  • Results were comparable to Chang et al. 2001 and Vaidya et al. 2009.
  • Chinese and American Ginseng extracts can decrease heart rate of Daphnia magna under cardiovascular stress induced through caffeine.
  • Limitation was the large sample size

Future Studies

  • Using chemical compounds found in ginger and ginseng
  • Long term effects of extracts
  • Testing on higher mammals with systems relating more directly to humans

Conclusion

  • Aside from the control the Chinese Ginseng group had the largest significant difference between its caffeinated and uncaffeinated group and the American Ginseng group had less of a significant difference between groups.
  • Chinese Ginseng, and American Ginseng extracts significantly lower the heart rate of Daphnia magna under cardiovascular stressin both caffeinated and uncaffeinated conditions.

Selected Bibliography