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Engineering. Technology. Management. Tracking the Constant of Change. Risk. Systems Engineering. Economics. History. Management. Legal Aspects. Society. Supply Chain. Logistics. Technical Information. Multidiscipline Design. Product Development.

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will we still be talking about knowledge management in 2025



Tracking the Constant of Change







Legal Aspects


Supply Chain








Will We Still Be Talking AboutKnowledge Management in 2025?

Mr. Gerald Steeman, Technical Information TC

Library and Information Services Branch

Office of the Chief Information Officer

NASA Langley Research Center

  • Knowledge and Knowledge Management
  • Explicit and Tacit Knowledge
  • Getting and Defining Value
  • Industry and Government Perspectives
  • Today’s Human Capital Drivers – Tomorrow’s Need For KM
  • The Aerospace Sector: Poised for KM?
  • First Steps Toward the Year 2025
what is knowledge
What is Knowledge?




Data + Context : Information is data that are organized, grouped, and/or categorized.; Information moves around organizations (Ex: Technical Report outlining data errors and new instrumentation design)

Information + Interpretation/ judgment; Knowledge is familiarity, awareness or understanding gained through experience or study. It results from making comparisons, identifying consequences and making contentions. Knowledge also includes judgment and rules of thumb developed over the time through trial and error (Ex: development of new technology for better data collection )



Data, Information, Knowledge, Wisdom



Unorganized Facts; data are sets of discrete facts; Data reside in a fixed place (Ex: unanalyzed feed from atmospheric instruments)

Explicit = formal, documented knowledge recorded on any type of media

Tacit = personal “know how” that is often difficult to articulate in documented form

Adapted from: Managing Knowledge @work by Federal CIO Council

some definitions of km
Some Definitions of KM
  • Knowledge management…
    • …includes not only the acquisition, accumulation, and utilization of existing knowledge, but also the creation of new knowledge(Nonaka & Takeuchi, Knowledge-creating company, 1995)
    • …is the management discipline that focuses on improving the means by which individual and collectively-held knowledge is produced and integrated in organizations (McElroy, http://dir.jayde.com/profile10078843.html, @2000)
    • … is getting the right information to the right people at the right time, and helping people create knowledge and share and act upon information in ways that will measurably improve the performance of NASA and its partners. (KM at NASA)
a short definition
Full time

Part time





In person;


Across time and space;

Explicit and Tacit

Diversity of thought;

Get hires from different backgrounds

Create opportunities;

Remove obstacles

Across the organization; cross-fertilization of ideas

Evaluation tools;

Matching needs with skills base

All employees, no pre-set groups

“Talk to” not “Talk at”; Promote exchanges of information and development of ideas

Employers should commit to what follows the “and.”

A Short Definition

Hire good people and let them talk to each other.

Attributed to Larry Prusak

explicit knowledge
Explicit Knowledge

Formally documented knowledge

  • Books, technical reports, journal articles and conferences, proceedings, newspapers, trade publications, standards and specifications, engineering drawings, employee directories, market and financial data, product information

Knowledge creation process






tacit knowledge
Tacit Knowledge
  • Employee knowledge, expertise, and experiences - not formally documented
  • Cross-industry surveys report almost 75% of corporate knowledge is tacit knowledge*


* Source: “Knowledge Management: Assessing Your Corporate Knowledge,” Mimi Ho, CIO.com, http://www2.cio.com/analyst/report2436.html


enablers of tacit knowledge
Enablers of Tacit Knowledge

Ramona - http://www.kurzweilai.net/

getting and defining value
Getting and Defining Value
  • Value =
  • Organizations must be able to assign a commodity value to knowledge they produce and retain.
    • Intellectual capital indices –Skandia Navigator
      • Annual visualization of corporate intellectual capital
    • Measuring business outcomes – 3M Example
      • “15%-rule” measured by involvement, improvement, and outcome
    • Balance Scorecard - APQC framework
      • Financial, Customer, Internal, and Innovation & Learning scores
industry and government perspectives
Industry and Government Perspectives




Effective Knowledge Management

Greater Profits

Reduced Taxes

Vibrant Economy

today s human capital drivers tomorrow s need for km
Today’s Human Capital Drivers – Tomorrow’s Need For KM

Engineering Undergraduates down 20%


Engineering Graduate Students down 18.5%

Aerospace Graduate Students down 15.5%

Science Graduate Students downturn

Late 1980s


Engineering declined by 15%

Doctorates Earned

Physics declined by 22%

Derived from: National Science Board, Nation Science Foundation information

Given these trends, the population of future engineers and scientists will need the type of knowledge collection and transfer KM promotes

the aerospace sector poised for km
The Aerospace Sector: Poised for KM?
  • Three questions:
    • Is your organization losing people to retirement?
    • Is your organization trying to hire skilled employees?
    • Does your organization have an Information Technology and Data Management infrastructure where intellectual capital resides?
km as the connections between people
KM as the Connections Between People

= 10 nodes

= 10 lines of communications

= 20 input/output connections

= 6 nodes

= 12 lines of communications

= 24 input/output connections

= 6 nodes

= 6 lines of communications

= 12 input/output connections

first steps toward the year 2025
First Steps Toward the Year 2025

Hire good people and let them talk to each other.

From http://km.nasa.gov