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MEPS 2 - The Next Stage of Efficiency Regulation for Distribution Transformers PowerPoint Presentation
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MEPS 2 - The Next Stage of Efficiency Regulation for Distribution Transformers

MEPS 2 - The Next Stage of Efficiency Regulation for Distribution Transformers

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MEPS 2 - The Next Stage of Efficiency Regulation for Distribution Transformers

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  1. MEPS 2 - The Next Stage of Efficiency Regulation for Distribution Transformers Trevor Blackburn School of Electrical Engineering UNSW

  2. The Role and Purpose of MEPS Regulations • Improve power and energy efficiency levels • Reduce electrical energy waste and CO2 emissions • Done byregulating minimum efficiency levels • Applied to locally-manufactured and imported items • Electrical equipment regulated by MEPS include: • Distribution transformers • Large electrical drives • Air conditioners • Fluorescent ballasts • Compact fluorescents

  3. The MEPS regulation process • Public domain technical report issued • Discussions with manufacturers and users • Regulatory Impact Statement generated • Australian Standard developed and published • Applications for registration and approval for specific classes of transformers • Compliance testing process

  4. Distribution Transformer Range • Single phase and three phase • Ratings: 10 kVA – 3100 kVA (2500 now) • Includes: oil-filled, dry-type and SWER units • MEPS 1 • Introduced in 2004 • Two minimum power efficiency levels specified • Standard [Regulated minimum levels] • High efficiency [Voluntary levels] • MEPS 2 • Proposed implementation date of no earlier than • 2012 • One regulated minimum efficiency level is specified • Identical to the MEPS 1 high efficiency level

  5. Why Transformers? • Network losses are significant • Represent about 5-10% of overall T & D energy transfer • Network Transformers • Cause up to 40% of total network losses • Between the generator and consumer at 400/230 V, electrical energy may pass through: • 2 transmission transformers • 2 or 3 distribution transformers

  6. Distribution losses in Australian utilities2009 [ESAA – EGA data]

  7. Transmission & Distribution transformer regulation ? • Transmission transformers • Usually one-off design • Usually very energy efficient • Very small numbers • Give only limited energy saving benefits • Distribution transformers • Mass produced to an economic design • Losses may be sacrificed for low capital cost • Very large numbers in use • Potentially large energy saving benefits

  8. Number of utility-owned Distribution Transformers in Australia: 2010 • 33 kV 7,544 • 22 kV 213,373 • 11 kV and below 337,759 • SWER 113,248 • TOTAL 661,934 • Usually relatively lightly loaded (25-30%) • Long life expected

  9. Number of privately owned transformers (commerce, industry, mines) • Difficult to determine • Large numbers of imported units • Based on international numbers, about 25% of utility numbers • Generally shorter life than utility trafos • More heavily loaded: • About 40-50% on average

  10. Transformer loss and greenhouse gas mitigation

  11. MEPS for Transformers AS 2374.1.2 - 2004 Power transformers – Part 1.2 Minimum efficiency Performance Standards (MEPS) requirements for Distribution Transformers Specifies minimum (power) efficiency levels for oil and dry-type transformers under specific test conditions

  12. Existing MEPS efficiency LevelsLiquid-immersed transformers (at 50% rated load)

  13. Existing MEPS LevelsDry-type transformers[at 50% rated load]

  14. Effect of loading on losses Targosz_2007 (Leonardo)

  15. MEPS 2 Levels

  16. Why do we need to increase MEPS1 efficiency levels to MEPS2? • Need the most efficient transformers that are available to minimisethe effect on climate change • Power electronic loads on transformers will increase losses due to harmonic content: • Increasing harmonic levels arise from use of: • Adjustable speed drives (IGBT switching) • Switch mode power supplies (Computers and IT equipment) • Compact fluorescent lamps • Any other non-linear loading • Transformer losses scale as the square of harmonic number • May require de-rating of transformers in some applications to avoid overheating • K-factor transformers

  17. Energy savings with MEPS 2 1000 kVAoil filled transformer • Daily load cycle • 8 hours @ full load, unity PF • 6 hours @ 50% load, unity PF • 6 hours @ 25% load, unity PF • 4 hours @ no load • MEPS 1 power efficiency = 99.27% • MEPS 2 power efficiency = 99.37%

  18. Energy savings potential • MEPS 1efficiency • Daily energy efficiency: 99.07% • Daily energy loss: 117 kWh • MEPS 2 efficiency • Daily energy efficiency: 99.24% • Daily energy loss: 100 kWh • Daily energy saving with MEPS2 17 kWh • Annual saving with MEPS 2: 6.21 MWh • Annual CO2 saving: 6.42 tonnes

  19. Effect of non-linear loads • Both core loss and load loss are increased by harmonic frequency content of the load current and/or supply voltage • Core loss • Hysteresis loss scales as (f)1.8 • Eddy current loss scales as (f)2 • Copper eddy current loss scales as (f)2

  20. Adjustable speed induction drive harmonics

  21. CFL Current Harmonics

  22. Effect of harmonic loss150 kVA transformer supplying PCs Requires de-rating to 125 kVA to maintain normal life

  23. Can the efficiency levels of transformers be increased? • What are the ultimate efficiency limits? • What are the manufacturing constraints? • New materials? • What are the operational constraints? • Industrial use and impact on losses • Total life cycle cost of the transformer

  24. The ultimate efficiencies[US DOE determination : MAX-TECH levels]

  25. Comparison of MEPS1 with other international efficiencies for liquid immersed three phase transformers

  26. Comparison of MEPS1 [12 and 24 kV] with other international efficiencies for dry-type three phase transformers

  27. Comparison of MEPS1 And MEPS2 liquid immersed transformer efficiencies with international standards Australian ESI Aug 07

  28. New MEPS comparison

  29. MEPS1 and MEPS2 efficiencies for all transformer types and ratings Australian ESI Aug 07

  30. Increase in transformer numbers and installed capacity for the 30 year modelling period [2006 – 2036].

  31. Annual loss of the three phase oil-immersed transformers with MEPS1 and MEPS efficiency and the difference in annual loss [at 25% load]

  32. Timeline for MEPS 2 • Dec/Jan2008: Broad elements of new standard containing revised figures • April 2012: Likely Public Comment Draft of new Standard to be produced • 2013:MEPS 2 to be implemented no earlier than this

  33. Efficiency determination • NATA registered labs for MEPS for Transformers • TCA (Sydney) • CalTest(Port Elliott, SA) • CalTest also test Motors to MEPS

  34. Manufacturer Tests • Australian Manufacturers perform loss measurements and efficiency determination as a type test. • Main manufacturers for utilities are • Wilsons (Wodonga) • Schneider (Benalla) • Tyree (Mittagong) • ABB (Brisbane and Perth) • TMC (Melbourne) • Ampcontrol (Newcastle) Australian ESI Aug 07

  35. Imported transformers • Very large numbers • Mainly for the private sector • Difficulty in regulating • Testing is difficult because of size • Need mobile test sets • Caltest have mobile facility • Excite from LV side • Problems with OHS constraints Australian ESI Aug 07

  36. Efficiency determination • Method used in the Standard is from the main power trafo standard: based on loss compliance tests • Requires only 1-2% accuracy in loss determination • But efficiency is specified to a 0.01% variation • Uncertainty of the efficiency determination is thus questionable • US Dept of Energy has a much more rigorous test method specified

  37. Conclusions • Transformers are a significant contribution to overall network loss • There is significant potential for reduction of transformer losses • Modern load types increase losses due to the high harmonic content • Harmonics should be included in some form in testing • Testing methods as specified need some improvement