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COAL. Ingrid Sullivan, Alex Gotsky , Michael Bradac. How it’s Made. Coal is formed from the remains of vegetation that grew as long as 400 million years ago. As plants and trees die the remains sink to the bottom of the swampy areas accumulating layer upon layer.

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Ingrid Sullivan, Alex Gotsky, Michael Bradac

how it s made
How it’s Made
  • Coal is formed from the remains of vegetation that grew as long as 400 million years ago.
  • As plants and trees die the remains sink to the bottom of the swampy areas accumulating layer upon layer.
  • Coal is made up of hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen.
coal turning in to energy
Coal Turning in to Energy
  • You can turn coal into town gas to fuel streetlights and gas in homes.
  • You can convert coal to methane or substitute natural gas
  • The energy can go to homes schools and businesses
where coal is found
Where Coal is Found
  • Although coal is a huge part of pollution it is still used the most.
  • Coal is found in coal mines

All over the world.

types of coal
Types of Coal
  • The four main types of coal are…

Bituminous- is the most plentiful coal in the United states of America. It is used to generate electricity. Bituminous has carbon from 46 to 86 percent and heat value of 10,500 to 15,500-per-pound.

Lignite- has carbon from 25-35 percent and heat value between 4,000 and 8,300 per-pound.

Anthracite- has the highest carbon content between 86 and 98 percent and heat value between 1,500 per-pound. 73 billion tons reserved in the United States of America, mostly in the northeastern countries.

Subbituminous- has 35-45 percent carbon and heat value between 8,300 and 13,000 per-pound. Located in western states like Alaska.

advantages of coal
Advantages of Coal
  • Coal can be found in lots of places in the world and there is still plenty in the UK.
  • Coal can be easily transported to the power stations.
  • Coal is a relatively cheap energy source.
  • Coal is one of the most abundant sources of energy, more so than oil and natural gas
  • Coal is inexpensive when compared to other fossil fuels (or alternative energy sources)
  • Coal is versatile enough to be used for recreational activities such as BBQ’s or simply for home fires
  • Burning coal can produce useful by-products that can be used for other industries or products
  • Electricity produced from coal is reliable
  • Coal can be safely stored and can be drawn upon to create energy in time of emergency
  • Coal based power is not dependent on weather which cannot be said for alternative forms of renewable energy such as wind or solar power
  • Transporting coal does not require the upkeep of high-pressure pipelines and there is no requirement for extra security when transporting coal
  • Using coal reduces the dependence on using oil, which is often found in nations where there is unstable political regimes
disadvantages of coal
Disadvantages of Coal

To dig up coal, we have to create mines which can be dangerous and not very nice to look at.

Transporting coal by lorry and train from the mine to the power station causes pollution.

Burning coal produces polluting gases like sulphur dioxide which make acid rain.

Of all energy sources, burning coal releases the most greenhouse gases which may add to global warming.

Coal miners can be affected by black lung disease or pneumoconiosis and also emphysema if they breathe in too much of the coal dust.

Coal mining can scar the landscape and the equipment used for mining is large and noisy which may affect local wildlife.

coal being renewed
Coal Being Renewed


Coal is a nonrenewable resource because it takes millions of years for it just to form and then you have to go through the hole energy process.

coal s waste by products
Coal’s Waste by-Products
  • Ash is left behind from coal.
  • Coal ash is more radioactive than nuclear waste.
  • By burning away all carbon and other impurities, coal power plants produce heaps of radiation.

Tools Needed

  • Axes
  • Conveyer Belt
  • Pick Axes
  • Drills
  • Explosives
  • Shuttle Cars
  • Roof Bolt
  • Helmet
  • Flash Lights
  • Extra Batteries
  • Scoop
coal stored
Coal Stored
  • Power plants burn coal and generate power as it is needed.
  • It is not stored.
  • After coal is burned, the energy is transferred right away to where it is needed.
coal in the future
Coal in the Future

Assuming there were no new findings of coal, the present amount would last 137 years at the rate of use of it today.

coal fun facts
Coal Fun Facts
  • Coal, together with oil and natural gas belongs to fossil fuels.
  • Coal was formed about 300 million years ago.
  • Coal is a combustible mostly black sedimentary rock composed mostly of carbon and hydrocarbons.
  • Coal takes a million years to create and therefore it belongs to non-renewable energy sources.
  • Coal mining uses two methods: surface or underground mining where surface mining is more dominant method because it is less expensive than the underground mining.
  • Coal is mostly transported by train.
  • Coal as the other fossil fuels as well isn't ecologically acceptable because of CO2 and global warming.
  • Coal is classified into four main types: lignite, subbituminous, bituminous, anthracite and the coal value is determined by the amount of the carbon it contains.
  • Coal is mined in 27 US states.
  • Coal is mainly used for generating electricity (more than 90 % of US coal).
  • Coal usually has a negative impact on environment, mining can damage ground and surface waters and when coal burns as the fuel it releases CO2 which is the main greenhouse gas that causes global warming.
  • Using coal power costs about 3 cents per pound or $75 per metric ton.
coal s purpose
Coal’s Purpose
  • Nine out of every 10 tons of coal mined in the United States today is used to generate electricity.
  • More than half of the electricity used in this country is coal-generated electricity.
  • Electricity from coal is the electric power made from the energy stored in coal.
  • Carbon, made from ancient plant material, gives coal most of its energy.
  • This energy is released when coal is burned.

Smith, Rachel. “The Facts on Coal” New York Publishing Company

Hansen, Thomas. “Commerce State and Coal Mining” E1D3-4266

Campbell, Evan. “Ohio Valley Coal”

“History of Coal”

Hartmen, Rachael.“Coal Facts”