3.1 Media Industry Analyse how a specific media industry is organised and controlled.
Pair up – Research: Film industry • Check wikipedia for the information they have their about the NZ Film Industry. • What do you learn here about how this industry is ORGANISED?? • Go to my site – www.missthompsonmedia.com There is a page for 3.1 Film Industry and a document about the Screen Production industry for you to skim/scan – what do you learn here about the ORGANISATION of the industry? • Make a set of notes.
Research a case study • Choose ONE NZ film to research. Find out the following things: • Where and when it was filmed • How was NZ involved in it? production / writing /directing / acting /crew etc. • How much did it cost to make • How did NZ benefit – economically (profits), recognition from overseas /festivals /awards etc, • How much did NZ fund it • Why was it filmed? Produced / Directed / Wrote • Who starred in it? • How was it received by audiences/critics etc.? Present your findings on weebly, or on 2 A4 pages, or in a power-point. Make them available for your classmates to see.
New zealand film • Research a recent NZ – made film to find out about how the NZ film industry is ORGANISED and CONTROLLED. • Who is….Producer, Director, Actors, finance, scriptwriter/s, cast and crew, Distribution, Festivals, Exhibition – notes and facts/stats on all of the above. (Find out who was involved in all 5 stages of production (pre / production / post / distribution / exhibition) • Cost of the production, what profit has been made? • Quotations needed from Producers/ Directors / NZ Film Commission / Newspaper or Magazine articles. • Find information at www.nzonscreen.com or www.nzfilm.co.nz or www.imdb.com
What is a NZ made film? • Compile a list of all the films you consider to be NZ made films. • How should we define a New Zealand film? Consider: • NZ director (Lee Tamihori, Niki Caro, Roger Donaldson, TaikaWaititi, Peter Jackson, Jane Campion) • NZ subject matter (Whale Rider, Boy, Goodbye Pork Pie) • NZ cultural or other identity • Actors (Sam Neill, Martin Henderson, Temuera Morrison, Keisha Castle-Hughes, Anna Paquin, Rhys Darby, Cliff Curtis) • Location (eg The Last Samurai or LOTR, Narnia)
NZ Films-list as many as you can… • Once were warriors • Boy • Second hand wedding • Eagle vs Shark • Whale Rider • Lord of the Rings (trilogy) • Sione’s wedding • Heavenly Creatures • The Piano • The Devil Dared Me • Black Sheep • Out of the Blue • World’s Fastest Indian • Love Birds • River Queen • Goodbye Pork Pie • Footrot Flats • My wedding and other secrets • The hopes and dreams of Gazza Snell • Hollow Men • Nights in the Garden of Spain The Last Samurai? Narnia? Tin Tin? King Kong? Yogi Bear? Now…. What constitutes a NZ film?
What constitutes a NZ Film? Defining nz film • Has to have NZ actors or crew • Advances/ benefits the NZ film industry – benefits Nz • Identifiable NZ component – location, people, contexts, situations • Directed by NZ’er • Is ‘The Vintners Luck’ a NZ film? It is directed by a kiwi, Niki Caro and stars Keisha Castle Huges • Overseas films – use NZ workers, credits NZ locations, tax and flow on economic benefits for NZ • A NZ story (but funded & filmed overseas) is still a NZ film – eg Flight of the Conchords (tv) ? • Does some part of the production process have to belong in NZ? • Does NZ have to fund / partly fund the film?
What is and isn’t a NZ film?? • Lord of the Rings, King Kong, The Chronicles of Narnia are not considered NZ films by the NZFC, despite being directed by and/or shot in NZ. WHY WOULD THIS BE THE CASE???? • They were funded by foreign investment and critical matters such as budgeting and casting were decided by foreign producers. • Not funded by NZFC • Distributed and Marketed by global media conglomerates So, what is a New Zealand film then? - King Kong was imagined, directed, created by a Kiwi – and many Kiwi’s identify it as a Kiwi film. We feel a sense of ownership and pride in the success of one of our own (PJ).
Analyse how a specific media industry is organised and controlled. In this description of the 3.1 Achievement Standard – knowing that you will write an 800 word essay about it – and construct 5 questions – which you can use to guide your study into the NZ Film Industry. • How is NZ Film industry organised (arranged), structured/ assembled - does it resemble other countries? Australia, Britain, Canada? Who are not robust and financially independent such as the USA (Hollywood). • How is this industry controlled – internal / external controls? • For what purposes (other than creating films) does the industry exist? How does it benefit people in NZ? • What would happen if the NZ film industry was not organised/controlled the way that it is now? • What process does a film idea go through to be produced (from page to screen). Who is involved in this process?
History of NZ Film-makingLevel 3 media workbook • Summarise in a paragraph the past 110 years of film making in NZ. Comment on the highlights and the low-lights, using supporting evidence from your handout. • Draw conclusions about political/ government involvement, individuals in the industry, the impact of various levels of funding of the industry. • Explain the difference between a ‘director’ a ‘producer’ and a ‘director of photography’.
History of film-making in nzLevel 3 Media Workbook • 1890’s – today: Read and make notes on “Background” (pg 4 – 8) • In what ways does NZ’s film industry differ from Hollywood’s Studio System? (pg 9) • What are NZ audiences watching? (complete pgs 10 – 13) NZ Film Industry Organisation – explain how it is: • Project based • Collaborative • Hierarchical
3/8/11 Brainstorm + organise • Brainstorm any and all of the people or organisations involved in any aspect of the film making industry that you can think of. • Now, how could you categorise all these individual ideas so they are grouped together? Make a number of lists. • Read the ‘Making Movies’ A3 handout – which people did you write down and which did you miss? Include them in your lists. • Play the ‘Who am I’ card game. Try to remember all the correct answers.
Plan AND structure your essay How is New Zealand’s film industry organised and how is this different from Hollywood? • History of Nz film • Definition of NZ film • Detailed description of the industry – roles & responsibilities within it, project based structure, 5 stages of film production • NZFC – role and functions • Case study – a film you have researched – how does it exemplify the film industry in action? How was it put together. Use your black book for guidance and your NZFC handout.
Introduction • NZ film industry has grown immensely in the last 40 years…. tiny number of films made before 1970…. over 400 features made since then… creation of NZFC in 1978…..Some might say NZ film industry is booming, however compared to Hollywood it is still only a fledgling industry.. This introduction establishes an argument that although the industry has grown, it is still quite small and vulnerable. We would expect the argument to develop from here.
organised Synonyms: Assembled / Constructed / Arranged / Structured • Essentially the NZ Film Industry is PROJECT-BASED = one film at a time is produced as an independent project, often a Production Company is established just for one film, and disbanded after production is complete. Compare to Hollywood (use Level 3 text book) • In groups – construct a mind-map representation of the NZ FILM INDUSTRY, how the roles/ responsibilites are organised around the production of a film.
How is NZ Film industry organised(arranged, structured/ assembled) - does it resemble other countries? (Australia, Britain)Who are not robust and financially independent such as Hollywood. P = NZ film industry is project-based, production companies are assembled and disbanded for each individual film project. (ELABORATE) E = For example in the making of TaikaWaititi’s 2010 film, ‘Boy’, Whenua Films was assembled by Waititi and ... [insert here details of the production company, who involved, when, where, what and how, why?] (ELABORATE) E = However, South Pacific Pictures is a long running production company based in Auckland which produced a variety of television and film, they produced “Sione’s Wedding” and “Whale Rider’ in 2006 and 2003 respectively. They are partly funded by NZ Film Commission and NZ On Air. E = ‘Goodbye Pork Pie” was produced in 1983 by Pork Pie Productions, Geoff Murphy and Ian Mune created and disbanded the company specifically for this one film, which has become an iconic Kiwi story. R = What ramifications [effects – short and long term, consequences, implications] does this have for NZ? – Means that industry isn’t dominated by just a few companies like Hollywood is. Can be hard to break into. No long term goals for film production – start-stop (feast or famine) effect without gaining any traction or momentum. Not self-sustaining like Hollywood, they constantly need support from the government. Ministry of Culture and Heritage.
How is this industry controlled – internal controls? Internal Control • Production companies OR Guilds / Unions / Actors Equity – SPADA • E = The Hobbit, Peter Jackson / NZ actors in a controversy now over pay. Who is involved? What do they want? How will it impact the project and the actors in NZ? • E = SPADA provide training and support, networking opportunities within the industry, produce the Blue Book (code of best practice). This means that standards of how work is carried out can be maintained, the Pink Book (for the cast). • R = SPADA’s Blue Book can hold people accountable for standards in production, support in legal row or conflict between parties. Guarantee employers a good standard of work which makes NZ an attractive destination / location for filming.
How is this industry controlled –external controls? • P = NZFC is a life line for the industry by providing finance for NZ projects. • E = • P = NZFC crosses the line between external and internal control as they like to have some artistic control over the film they are financing. NZFC will collaborate with producers and directors about the content of a film to ensure it reflects enough local subject matter. • E = • P = NZ films rely heavily on private investors and joint partnerships with overseas production companies to be made. • R = Producers that the NZFC support have to be experienced so young, new people are not being given the chance to make films in NZ. Lots of talented film makers have to go abroad to gain such experience.
For what purposes (other than creating films) does the industry exist? How does it benefit people in NZ? P = NZ films bring recognition to NZ / landscape / culture / history / heritage and environment. P + E= A social commentary of the values and morals of our society – Once Were Warriors reflects violence and aggression evident in society and the immorality of this, Boy reflects belonging, identity and family values, to some extent the immaturity of our country, roles of men/fathers in our lives, the kiwi bloke stereotype. E = Statistics NZ proves there is a high interest in NZ content for film /tv, audiences want to see their own stories reflected. P + E = Creates income and skills and employment – Weta has become a world renowned workshop and leader in digital technology for films. [insert here some statistics, what jobs, what income or profit, details of their work, Oscar awards]. R = Eco-tourism is a beneficial offset but pollution is a drawback. Allows kiwi’s to identify with their own stories / strong sense of pride, identity and belonging. Can give bad impressions of NZ – eg Once were Warriors, Boy.
What would happen if the NZ film industry was not organised/ controlled the way that it is now? • P = Underground, low level industry would exist with sporadic and budget productions. Few films would be made at all, as during the 1960’s – 1970’s – Ian Mune “ [insert quote here re state of film during this period] “ or quote from the black book. • Little to no industry training. • P = Have to send work abroad if facilities in NZ aren’t set up to cater for post-production and other specialty needs. Film makers, actors and other crew would go abroad for training and experience, as many do now, however the problem would be much worse. • E = • E = • R =
What process does a film idea go through to be produced (from page to screen). • Concept (or idea), treatment, justification • Producer • Funding / NZFC • Scriptwriter (though script can be developed at any stage of this pre-production phase) • Director • Cast and crew – key roles hired • Locations / production and set designs • Shooting • Editing and sound – all post production (SFX) • Distribution / Marketing / Release • Premiers • DVD release
Process of creating a film • Construct a flow-diagram which represents what your group imagine is the process a production follows – from ‘Screenplay’ / ‘Script’ to the ‘Screen’.
Five stages of film production • Pre-production (Producer, Writer, Director, Designer, Composer, Investors) • Production (Producer, Director, Cast, Crew, Cinematographer) • Post-Production (Producer, Director, Editor, Musicians) • Distribution (Producer, Director, Stars, Publicity officer – Marketing Director) • Exhibition (Exhibitor) AUDIENCE
Whale Rider – Note making • Use the handout ‘Production Notes’ and pg 46 about Whale Rider, as well as the A3 ‘Making Movies’ handout. • Whale Rider is an example of a successful NZ film. Make notes on WHO was involved in the production and WHAT their ROLES were. Include names, dates, facts and figures and quotes from Barnett, Caro and others involved. • These can be used directly in your 3.1 exam essay.
Information gathering – NZFC • The New Zealand Film Commission (NZFC), established in 1978. Skim and scan the handout in small groups. What do they do? What are their aims? What are their policies? Use the following sub-headings to record your notes: • Short Film • Feature Film – Single Project Development • Feature Development • Feature Film Investment Policy Guidelines • Documentation / Standard Requirements – miss this • Criteria for Assessment • Film Fund • Film Fund 2 • Large Budget Screen Production Grant • Digital Films / Signature Films • Marketing Films Overseas • CASE STUDY: Stickmen - timeline
Debatable Topic: NZFC Key words: Argument = Synthesise = How are these key to your success in the 3.1 essay? NZFC is an EXTERNAL CONTROL which operates around the New Zealand film industry. What are some debatable questions we could be exploring about their role in the industry?
Your statements • The film industry in NZ would not survive without the backing of the NZFC. • The NZFC does not support local NZ film makers and their stories. • The NZFC is destroying the future of film in NZ. • The NZFC are the main barrier to NZ having a globally successful film industry. • The NZFC is controlling NZ films to such an extent that it is suffocating the industry. • The NZFC is only marginally successful in fulfilling it’s initial mandate. • The NZFC don’t do enough to foster investment partners to sponsor film making in NZ.
Homework • http://www.mch.govt.nz • The minister of art, culture and heritage is Christopher Finlayson – he has taken over the portfolio from the Labour minister, Judith Tizzard. • From the web address above, find out what this Ministry’s portfolio is all about – what do they do? • Follow the link on the homepage to the NZFC Review Document. What changes are being considered for the NZFC? Form an opinion about whether these are positive or negative changes.
World’s fastest Indian – case study • Name the most important members of the cast and crew on this film. • When was the film produced? • Why did Donaldson want to make this film? • What role did the NZFC play in supporting the production of this film? • What significance was there to securing an actor such as Anthony Hopkins to the starring role? • Using this film as an example, comment on the role of the NZFC as an external control for the NZ film industry. (One well-developed paragraph).
Using this film as an example, comment on the role of the NZFC as an external control for the NZ film industry. • Topic Statement = your opinion stated in a simple, straightforward manner, about the role of the NZFC as an external control in the film industry. • Explain = explain yourself – you’ve expressed an opinion, now describe and elaborate on how and why you hold that opinion – provide justification. “Because…. Due to …. In light of ….. Etc” • Evidence / Examples = name people, name films, quote evidence – PJ or Donaldson or Ruth Harley or (new guy), Judith Tizzard or anyone involved –who has said what and what does it mean. FIGURES – talk money, how much spent? How much made? • Tie-backs = What does it mean? How is this significant to the industry? Sum up your argument, is it success / failure? What does it mean for the future? Ramifications / implications / consequences.. Where is this heading?