Aftermath of WWIItaly By: Rob, Robb(Jon), and Robbie
Postwar Settlements • Italy was left out of major decision • making in the Paris Peace Conference. • In the Treaty of London, Italy was persuaded to join the triple alliance when offered land such as Trieste and Istria, Dalmatian coast except Fiume, full ownership of Albanian Valona, Antalya in Turkey and a share of Turkish and German empires in Africa • After the war, the Big Three made conflicting deals and didn’t follow through on their promises made in the Treaty of London.
Foreign Policy • Italy was largely ignored in foreign policies. • Italy was very interested in the region of Fiume, because of the Italian population • Vittorio Orlando was Italy’s representative but he didn’t speak English and came back from the Paris Peace Conference empty handed. • Italy was only offered Trentino to the Brenner, The Dalmation port of Zara, the island of Lagosto and a couple of small German colonies.
Economy • Weak after WW1, lost 700,000 men and 12,000,000,000 Lire (about 9 million U.S) • Great Depression: 1931, Industries started failing and bought out by banks • Industrial Reconstruction Institute formed in Jan, 1933. Set up by Fascist Government, buy shares of failing companies from banks • Italy was able to beat the depression by focusing on agricultural rather then industries though it rarely works
Three “Battles” • Battle For Land – Clear marshland to use for farming, improve Italy’s infrastructure. Create jobs, labor intensive, success • Battle of the Lira – Improve currency, make exports more expensive, industries failed because not an industrial nation but an agricultural nation • Battle of Grain – Grow grain at the expense of fruit and vegetables which were cheaper to produce. Grain prices rose, rich farmer gained
Politics • Fascism – Strongest nation/race, opposed Socialism and revealed nationalism, dictator • Benito Mussolini, 29 July 1883 –28 April 1945 • Fascism came from sources such as Plato, Georges Sorel, and Nietzsche. Idea of unity regardless of social status. • March of Rome – National Fascist Party came into power over Prime Minister Luigi Facta
Military • Italy was allied in the Triple Alliance • Remained neutral until May 1915 under pretext of the Triple Alliance being a defensive alliance • Joined war on May 23, 1915 after Treaty of London • Launched first attack on Austria-Hungary • First two years of fighting resulted in a 10 mile advance and millions of casualties including 700 thousand deaths. • After war ended, Italy was granted Triesto and Trentino, but no other territories in Europe or Africa as promised in the Treaty of London
Treaty of London 1915 Article 1 A military convention shall be immediately concluded between the General Staffs of France, Great Britain, Italy, and Russia. This convention shall settle the minimum number of military forces to be employed by Russia against Austria-Hungary in order to prevent that Power from concentrating all its strength against Italy, in the event of Russia deciding to direct her principal effort against Germany... Article 2 On her part, Italy undertakes to use her entire resources for the purpose of waging war jointly with France, Great Britain, and Russia against all their enemies. Article 3 The French and British fleets shall render active and permanent assistance to Italy... Article 4 Under the Treaty of Peace, Italy shall obtain the Trentino, Cisalpine Tyrol with its geographical and natural frontier, as well as Trieste, the counties of Gorizia and Gradisca, all Istria as far as the Quarnero and including Volosca and the Istrian islands of Cherso and Lussin, as well as the small islands of Plavnik, Unie, Canidole, Palazzuoli, San Pietro di Nembi, Asinello, Gruica, and the neighbouring islets... Article 5 Italy shall also be given the province of Dalmatia within its present administrative boundaries... Article 6 Italy shall receive full sovereignty over Valona, the island of Saseno and surrounding territory...
Article 7 Should Italy obtain the Trentino and Istria in accordance with the provisions of Article 4, together with Dalmatia and the Adriatic islands within the limits specified in Article 5, and the Bay of Valona (Article 6), and if the central portion of Albania is reserved for the establishment of a small autonomous neutralised State, Italy shall not oppose the division of Northern and Southern Albania between Montenegro, Serbia, and Greece... Article 8 Italy shall receive entire sovereignty over the Dodecanese Islands which she is at present occupying. Article 9 Generally speaking, France, Great Britain, and Russia recognise that,... in the event of total or partial partition of Turkey in Asia, she ought to obtain a just share of the Mediterranean region adjacent to the province of Adalia... Article 11 Italy shall receive a share of any eventual war indemnity corresponding to their efforts and her sacrifices. Article 13 In the event of France and Great Britain increasing their colonial territories in Africa at the expense of Germany, those two Powers agree in principle that Italy may claim some equitable compensation... Article 14 Great Britain undertakes to facilitate the immediate conclusion, under equitable conditions, of a loan of at least 50,000,000 pounds... Article 16 The present arrangement shall be held secret.
OPVL • Origin: Signed on 26 April 1915 between the allied powers and Italy • Purpose: Allied powers wanted Italy to wage war against Germany and Austria-Hungary Promised Italy territory in Austria-Hungary, Africa and other parts of Europe Guaranteed Italy permanent assistance from French and British fleets
Value: Shows pressure for countries to join alliances and shows agreements between countries belonging to opposite alliances • Limitations: The treaty was kept secret, so a reaction from the Triple Alliance was never seen until Italy attacked Austria-Hungary
Works Cited • Duffy, Michael. Treaty of London, 26 April 1915 . N.p., 22 Aug. 2009. Web. 15 Oct. 2009. <http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/london1915.htm>. • Nelson, Lynn. WW1: The Great War 1914 - 1918. Kansas History Gateway, 22 Jan. 2009. Web. 15 Oct. 2009. <http://vlib.iue.it/history/mil/ww1.html>. • Trueman, Chris. League of Nations. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Oct. 2009. <http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/leagueofnations.htm>. • Trueman, Chris. Economy in Fascist Italy. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Oct. 2009. <http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/economy_in_fascist_italy.htm>. • Trueman, Chris. Italy and World War One. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Oct. 2009. <http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/italy_and_world_war_one.htm>