Aftermath of WWI - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Aftermath of WWI

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  1. Aftermath of WWI

  2. Unstable Economy • Returning soldiers expected jobs • Need for goods lessened after the war • Unions fought to preserve wartime gains • Strikes throughout the nation were meet with hostility • By 1920 the USA faced severe economic depression

  3. African-Americans • Service in the armed forces did little to change attitudes of whites at home • Service did give blacks a voice and increased their determination to fight for rights

  4. Great Migration • During the war Northern industrial towns were in need of labor • Many African American families moved north in search of jobs • Nations demographics drastically changed • 1919 produced numerous race riots throughout the nation (Red Summer)

  5. The Red Scare • 1917 Russian Revolution produces a communist government • Comintern announced plans to continue the revolution throughout the world • America feared a radical revolution at home • Jan. 1, 1920 Attorney General Mitchell Palmer arrested over 6000 in communist raids • Fear soon subsided but anti-immigrant feelings strengthened

  6. Election of 1920 • Wilson was too sick to run for re-election • Democrat James Cox ran hoping to continue Wilson’s ideas • Republican Warren Harding opposed internationalism and promised a return to isolationism – ‘return to normalcy’ • Harding won with the largest popular vote margin in 100 years

  7. Isolationism • America attempted to reduce immigration • Literacy tests • Quotas • America imposed high tariffs on foreign goods • Created a boom for American businesses • Isolated America economically

  8. New Technologies • Radio • Westinghouse started commercial broadcast radio shows in 1920 • Shows gave people an idea of different lives • Spurred growth of advertising • Automobile • Ford’s assembly lines made cars more affordable for many families • Removed limitations for people • Spurred growth of other businesses

  9. New Attitudes • 120,000 Americans died in WWI and over 200,000 wounded • Wilson had imposed severe restrictions on many Americans during the war • After the war many Americans wanted to forget about the war and its costs

  10. 18th Amendment • Though prohibition had been largely ignored in presidential campaigns it was crucial to congressional races • 1919 Dries outnumbered Wets in Congress by a 3:1 margin • Congress proposed an amendment and was ratified by 36 of the 48 states thus becoming law

  11. The Roaring Twenties • Prohibition • Religious/Political Debate • Dries – Most Protestants (Methodists, Baptists, Presbyterian, etc.) • Wets – Catholics, Lutherans, Episcopalians • Dries believed saloons led to political corruption and that drinking was a sin • Wets believed the government should not legislate morality

  12. Enforcement • Though support for the amendment was widespread enforcement became a problem • A total of 1500 agents were placed in charge of enforcement throughout America • Led to the growth of speakeasies and bootlegging

  13. By the Numbers • 1919 Cleveland had 1200 legal bars • 1923 Cleveland had approximately 3000 illegal speakeasies • An estimated 30,000 residents sold liquor of some sort during Prohibition

  14. Corruption/Gangsters • Al Capone – Chicago gangster made over $60 million in 1927, reportedly had ½ of the city’s police on his payroll