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Verifica-te mai jos . Stii tot despre substantele compuse ?. Substantele compuse. Oxizi Baze Acizi Saruri

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substantele compuse
Substantelecompuse
  • Oxizi
  • Baze
  • Acizi
  • Saruri

Caracterchimic:a)acid(acizi,oxizinemetalici) b)bazic(bazele,oxizimetalici +NH3) c)neutru(saruri+H2O)

pH (0,7)=>caracter acid

pH(7;14)=>caracterbazic

pH(7)=>caracterneutru

oxizi
OXIZI
  • Def:Compusibinariaioxigenului cu metalesaunemetale.
  • Clasificare:1)metalici(oxizibazici) 2)nemetalici(oxiziacizi)
  • Formula generala: E2Ox(undeEeste metal saunemetalsixvalentaE)
  • Denumire:1)Oxizimetalici:CuO-oxid de cupru(oxid de + metal) 2)Oxizi nemetalici:CO2-dioxid de carbon (prefix(indice O)+Oxidde+Nemetal)
slide4

Obtinere:1)Reactie de combinare: Met+O2=>oxidmetalic Nemet+O2=>Oxidnemetalic Ex:2Mg+O2=>2MgO C+O2=>CO2 2)Reactie de descompunere: Carbonat de met=>oxidmetalic +CO2 CuCO3=>CuO+CO2

  • Proprietati fizice:1)oxizimetalici-solizi,albisaucolorati,iaruniisuntsolubili in apa(chiarreactioneaza cu apa) 2)oxizinemetalici-suntgazosi,incolorisaucolorati,deobiceisolubili in apasireactioneaza cu apa
slide5

Proprietatichimice:a)reactiaoxizilor cu apa CaO+H2O=>Ca(OH)2 oxid de metal(gr 1,2 A) +H2O=>Baza(oxidbazic) !!!Uniioxizimetalici in reactie cu apaformeazabaze;dinacestmotivtotioxizimetalici au caracterbazicsi se numescoxizibazici.CO2+H2O=>H2CO3(acid carbonic). oxid nemetalic+H2O=>Acid(oxid acid) Majoritateeaoxizilormetalicireactioneaza cu apaformandacizi.Dinacestmotivtotioxiziinemetalici au caracter acid si se numescoxiziacizi.

slide6

b) Reactia de tip neutralizareOxizibazici+Acid=>Sare +H2O Oxiziacizi+Baza=>Sare+H2O CO2+Ca(OH)2=>CaCO3+H2O(tulburareaapei de var)

slide7
Baze
  • Def:Substantecompuse,alcatuite din metalesigrupari de hidroxil(OH)
  • Clasificare:1)Solubile(in apa) (metaleleapartingrupelorprincipale,exceptiefacand Al) NaOH 2)Insolubile(in apa) (metaleleapartingrupelorsecundare+Al) Al(OH)3
  • Formula generala:M(OH)a(M-metal,a-valenta M) !!!Dacavalentametaluluieste 1 grupareahidroxil nu se maipune in paranteza)
slide8

Denumire:NaOH-hidroxid de sodiu=> hidroxid de+ metal !!!Denumiriuzuale:NaOH-soda caustica Ca(Oh)2-var stins,mortar

  • Proprietatifizice-solide,albesaucolorate,causticesipericuloase,bazetarisaubazeslabe;solutiilebazelorsolubilesuntlesioase.
  • Proprietati chimice:1)Fenolftaleina+Baze=>Rosucarmin (pH-(7;14]) 2)Baza +Oxid Acid=>Sare+H2O 3)Baza+Acid=>Sare+H2O 4)Bazasolubila +Sare1+>Baza insolubila+Sare2
slide9

Obtinere:a)bazesolubile 1)oxidmetalic +H2O=>Baza 2)metal(gr 1,2)+HOH=>Baza+H2 b)bazeinsolubileBaza solubila+Sare1=>Bazainsolubila +Sare2 !!! Na2CO3+HCl=>NaCl+H2O+CO2 (reactie de efervescenta)

acizi
Acizi
  • Def:Substantealcatuite din hidrogensi radical acizi(nemetale)
  • Clasificare:1)dupacompozitie: acizi hidracizi:HCl;H2S(compozitiibinare) acizi oxiacizi:HNO3,H2SO4(continoxigen) 2)dupaproprietati: acizi monobazici:HCl,HNO3 acizi bibazici:H2S;H2SO4 acizi polibazici:H3PO4
slide11

Formula generala:HaA(A-radicaacid,a-val A)

  • Denumiri:1)Hidracizi:HCl-acid clorhidric H2S-acid sulfhidric acid +nemetal+hidric 2)Oxiacizi:a)Candvalentanemetaluluieste maxima:H2SO4-acid sulfuric HNO3-acid azoticacid+nemet+ic b)Candvalentanemetaluluiesteinferioara:

HNO2-acid azotos;H2SO3-acid sulfurosacid+nemet+os

slide12

Obtinere:1)Reactie de combinare H2+Nem=>HidracidOxid nemet+H2O=>Oxiacid 2)Reactie de schimb Acid1+Sare1=>Acid2+Sare2(Acid1>Acid2)

  • Proprietatifizice:lichizi,solizi,gazosi;solubili in apa(electroliti)
  • Proprietatichimice 1)Turnesol+Acid=>Rosu 2)Met+Acid=>Sare+H2 3)Reactia cu :oxizibazici,baze,saruri
saruri
Saruri
  • Def:Substantecompuse,formate din metalesi radical acizi.
  • Clasificare:1)Sarurineutre 2)Saruriacide
  • Proprietatifizice:solide,cristalizate,a;besaucolorate;insolubilesisolubile in apa.