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# p. 216

Birth of Stars. p. 216. Properties of stars: Mass Luminosity (Intrinsic brightness) Surface temperature Size (radius) Composition Distance from us is NOT a property of the star. Luminosity : the brightness of a star as we see it depends on the

## p. 216

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1. Birth of Stars p. 216

2. Properties of stars: Mass Luminosity (Intrinsic brightness) Surface temperature Size (radius) Composition Distance from us is NOT a property of the star. Luminosity: the brightness of a star as we see it depends on the intrinsic brightness (luminosity measured as energy per unit time) and distance from us. Luminosity (L) = 4πR²×brightness. L = 4πR²σT4. Where R is radius of the star and T is temperature in Kelvin. σ is a constant. The luminosity of a star is normally expressed in units of the luminosity of the Sun.

3. Stars are born – protostars Middle age – main sequence stars Death – White dwarf or Supernova Life cycle of a star

4. The brightness (magnitude) of a star depends on the star luminosity (intrinsic brightness) and the distance from us. For all practical purposes, stars (except the Sun) are so far away that all we observe is a point source. Brightness of a star

5. Spectra Fig. 11-1, p.218

6. Continuous spectra of stars λmax(nm)= 2,900,000/T (ºK) Fig. 11-2, p.218

7. Emission spectra of Hydrogen Fig. 11-3, p.219

8. Spectral types Fig. 11-5, p.220

9. Distance (d) by parallax method d = 1 / p If p in arc sec Then d is in parsec 1 parsec = 3.26ly Fig. 11-7, p.221

10. Intensity α 1/R² Fig. 11-9, p.223

11. Luminosity L = 4πR²σT4. Size and temperature! I.e. If temperature is twice the L is 16 times higher. Absolute Magnitude M same as apparent magnitude m at 10 parsec = 32.6 ly. m – M = -5 + 5log 10 (d/3.26). D in ly. If two of the quantities are known, the third can be computed. Sun: m = -27, M = 5. Sirius: m = -1.5, M = +1.5. d = 9 ly. Spica: m = +1, M = - 4. d = 262 ly. Star Luminosity and absolute magnitude

12. H R Diagram Bright Dim Hot Cool Fig. 11-13, p.227

13. Stellar abundance

14. Star masses determined from double stars. About half the stars are in groups of two or more stars. Stellar sizes measured directly from eclipsing binaries. There are about 2,000 eclipsing binaries. Stellar size can also be computed from luminosity. Star Mass and Size

15. Double star Albireo, also known as  Cygni, contains a B star and a K star. Beautiful pair because of their contrasting colors. Fig. 11-17, p.230

16. Two stars revolving around each other And moving in space. MA + MB = R³/ P² Where M is in solar mass units, P in years and R in AU Fig. 11-22, p.233

17. Doppler shift due to motion Fig. 11-16, p.230

18. p.231

19. Eclipsing binary measure mass and diameter About 2,000 eclipsing binaries Fig. 11-20, p.232

20. Plots of luminosity, radius,temperature vs mass for main sequence stars

21. Variable stars • Light intensity varies with time. • RR Lyra: Period 6 to 12 hours. Absolute magnitude about 0.5. • Cepheid variable stars: Period from 1 to 50 days. Absolute magnitude related to period.

22. Cepheid variable star Fig. 11-26, p.236

23. Period determines the absolute magnitude M. Apparent magnitude (m) is measured (how bright it looks to us). m – M = -5 + 5log 10 (d/3.26). D in ly. Distance d is computed as two of the three variables are known. In a cluster of stars, or even in a galaxy, only one variable star is needed to calculate the distance. Variable stars to determine distance

24. Table, p.237

25. Open cluster of stars in the constellation Carina. Fig. 11-29, p.238

26. Open cluster, surrounded by the Rosette Nebula Fig. 11-30, p.238

27. Globular cluster M15 in the constellation Pegasus. Has a massive Black hole in the Center. Fig. 11-31, p.238

28. The vast majority of stars are main sequence. The most important quantity is mass. The larger the mass; The higher the surface temperature. The larger the size (diameter). The brighter the star. The shorter the lifetime. Main Sequence Stars

29. Temperature: 3,000ºK to 50,000ºK; Sun 5,800ºK Mass: 0.08 to 80 times mass of Sun. Size: 0.01 to 1,000 times diameter of Sun. Luminosity: 10-4 to 10+6 times the Sun. Composition (by number): 92% hydrogen, 8% helium and <<1% other heavier elements. Main sequence stars

30. H-R Diagram Fig. 11-32, p.239

31. Double cluster in Perseus, Fig. 11-33, p.240

32. Fig. 11-34, p.241

33. M<0.08 .08<M<0.4 0.4<M<1.4 1.4<M<~4 M>~4 P R O T O S T A R | M a i n S e q u e n c e | R E D G I A N T | | | Planetary Supernova | | | Nebula | | W h i t e D w a r f | B r o w n D w a rf Neutron Star OR Black Hole Stellar Evolution M A I N S E Q U E N C E R E D G I A N T W H I T E D W A R F B R O W N D W A R F

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