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Research Methodology. EPH 7112 LECTURE 2: CHARACTERISTICS AND TYPES OF RESEARCH. Contents. Characteristics of Scientific Research Types of Research Basic Research Applied Research Academic Research Industrial Research. Scientific Research.

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research methodology

Research Methodology

EPH 7112


  • Characteristics of Scientific Research
  • Types of Research
    • Basic Research
    • Applied Research
    • Academic Research
    • Industrial Research
scientific research
Scientific Research
  • How is it different from non-scientific research?
  • Focuses on solving problems and pursues a step-by-step logical, organized, and rigorous method to
    • identify the problems
    • collect data
    • analyze and
    • draw valid conclusions
scientific research1
Scientific Research
  • Non-scientific research based on hunches, experience and intuition
  • Pilot study, exploratory
characteristics of scientific research
Characteristics of Scientific Research
  • Aim
  • Rigor
  • Testability
  • Replicability
  • Precision and Confidence
  • Objectivity
  • Generalizability
  • Parsimony
characteristics of scientific research1
Characteristics of Scientific Research
  • Aim
  • The purpose of scientific research is clear
    • eg to increase gain of EDFA
    • to reduce Optical Beat Interference
    • to reduce Noise Figure
characteristics of scientific research2
Characteristics of Scientific Research
  • Rigorous
  • Based on good theoretical base and sound methodology
  • Careful and scrupulous
    • eg all design parameters concerning the gain in EDFA must be considered; EDF length and concentration, pump power, input signal power and wavelength.
    • eg resolution of OSA, stability of current source for pump laser
characteristics of scientific research3
Characteristics of Scientific Research
  • Testability
  • Test theoretical model by simulation or experiment
  • Analysis of performance parameter against design parameter
    • eg EDFA theoretical model show low gain with high input signal power.
    • Experiment to test this relationship while other design parameters are fixed can be carried out.
    • Gain is measured against input signal power
characteristics of scientific research4
Characteristics of Scientific Research
  • Replicability
  • The same relationship stands repeatedly under the same design parameters
characteristics of scientific research5
Characteristics of Scientific Research
  • Precision and Confidence
  • Precision refers to closeness of the findings to reality
  • Confidence refers to the probability that our estimations are correct
characteristics of scientific research6
Characteristics of Scientific Research
  • Objectivity
  • Conclusions drawn from the analysis of data must be objective
  • Proven from trend in data
  • Supported by theoretical model
characteristics of scientific research7
Characteristics of Scientific Research
  • Generalizability
  • Scope of applicability
  • The wider, the better
  • Eg. Rate Equation Model applicable for lasers and fiber amplifiers
characteristics of scientific research8
Characteristics of Scientific Research
  • Parsimony
  • Simplicity in explaining the phenomena or problem
  • Assumptions are critical
  • Minimize the dependant variable
types of research
Types of Research
  • Basic Research
  • Applied Research
  • Academic Research
  • Industrial Research
basic research
Basic Research
  • Also known as pure or fundamental research
  • Objective:
    • Advancement of knowledge
    • Understanding of theoretical relationship between variables
basic research1
Basic Research
  • Exploratory in nature
  • Without any practical end in mind
basic research2
Basic Research
  • Examples of questions asked in basic research:
    • Which aspects of genomes explain organismal complexity?
    • Is it possible to prove or disprove Goldbach's conjecture? (i.e. that every even integer greater than 2 can be written as the sum of two (not necessarily distinct) primes)
applied research
Applied Research
  • Solve specific, practical questions
  • Can be exploratory, but descriptive
  • Involves precise measurement of the characteristics and describes relationships between variables of a studied phenomenon
applied research1
Applied Research
  • Can be carried out by academic or industrial institutions
  • Investigation directed “to discovering new scientific knowledge that has specific commercial objectives with respect to products, processes or services
applied research2
Applied Research
  • Examples of question asked in applied research:
    • How can Canada's wheat crops be protected from grasshoppers?
    • What is the most efficient and effective vaccine against influenza?
    • How can the Great Lakes be protected against the effects of greenhouse gas?
academic research
Academic research
  • carried out in universities and research institutes
  • expanding the extant levels of knowledge and technology
  • does not have any limits as it does not have any bounds in terms of tangible goals or outputs
industrial research
Industrial Research
  • carried out in commercial organizations
  • a goal or a set of outputs that apply to the sector or industry
  • focuses on application of knowledge
msc a process of
MSc, a process of
  • Identifying a research area of interest
  • Learning to carry out a research project
  • Identifying problems
  • Analyzing/ dissecting problems
  • Designing/developing solutions
  • Proving/Substantiating solution
  • Reporting
outcome of msc program
Outcome of MSc program
  • Understand the issues of concerns within the area of specialization
  • Update with the latest development in the area of specialization
  • Master some of the tools (analytical, programming, simulation) required within the scope of study
  • Master some of the test and measurement skills
outcome of msc program1
Outcome of MSc program
  • Be able to analyze results
  • Be able to report results ; oral and written
  • Have published papers
  • Know the primary references for the area of specialization
outcome of msc program2
Outcome of MSc program
  • Know the leading researchers/research groups in the area of study
  • Know the relevant industries/companies
  • Identify his/her research strength and weaknesses (theoretical, experimental; materials, processes, components/devices, system)
  • Conduct research with minimal guidance
  • Smile..