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Table of Contents

Table of Contents

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Table of Contents

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  1. Table of Contents • Earth’s Interior • Convection and the Mantle • Drifting Continents • Sea-Floor Spreading • The Theory of Plate Tectonics

  2. - Earth’s Interior Exploring Inside the Earth • Geologists have used two main types of evidence to learn about Earth’s interior: direct evidence from rock samples and indirect evidence from seismic waves.

  3. - Earth’s Interior The Crust • The crust is a layer of solid rock that includes both dry land and the ocean floor.

  4. - Earth’s Interior The Mantle • Earth’s mantle is made up of rock that is very hot, but solid. Scientists divide the mantle into layers based on the physical characteristics of those layers.

  5. - Earth’s Interior Temperature Inside the Earth • The graph shows how temperatures change between Earth’s surface and the bottom of the mantle. On this graph the temperature at the Earth’s surface is 0oC. Study the graph carefully and then answer the questions.

  6. The depth increases. Reading Graphs: As you move from left to right on the x-axis, how does depth inside the Earth change? - Earth’s Interior Temperature Inside the Earth

  7. About 1,600oC Estimating: What is the temperature at the boundary between the lithosphere and the asthenosphere? - Earth’s Interior Temperature Inside the Earth

  8. About 3,200oC Estimating: What is the temperature at the boundary between the lower mantle and the core? - Earth’s Interior Temperature Inside the Earth

  9. It generally increases with depth. Interpreting Data: How does temperature change with depth in Earth’s interior? - Earth’s Interior Temperature Inside the Earth

  10. - Earth’s Interior The Core • The core is made mostly of the metals iron and nickel. It consists of two parts–a liquid outer core and a solid inner core.

  11. - Earth’s Interior Using Prior Knowledge • Before you read, look at the section headings and visuals to see what this section is about. Then write what you know about Earth’s interior in a graphic organizer like the one below. As you read, write what you learn. What You Know Earth’s crust is made of rock. Earth is very hot near the center. Dry land is part of the crust. The mantle is very hot. The core contains iron. What You Learned Geologists use seismic waves to study Earth’s interior. Radioactive substances heat the interior of Earth. The crust is thickest under high mountains. The mantle is solid. Movements in the outer core create Earth’s magnetic field.

  12. - Earth’s Interior Links on the Structure of Earth • Click the SciLinks button for links on the structure of Earth.

  13. End of Section:Earth’s Interior

  14. - Convection and the Mantle Types of Heat Transfer • There are three types of heat transfer: radiation, conduction, and convection.

  15. - Convection and the Mantle Convection Currents • Heating and cooling of the fluid, changes in the fluid’s density, and the force of gravity combine to set convection currents in motion.

  16. - Convection and the Mantle Convection Currents in Earth • Heat from the core and the mantle itself causes convection currents in the mantle.

  17. - Convection and the Mantle Outlining Convection and the Mantle • An outline shows the relationship between major ideas and supporting ideas. As you read, make an outline about heat transfer. Use the red headings for the main topics and the blue headings for the subtopics. • Types of Heat Transfer • Radiation • Conduction • Convection • Convection Currents • Convection in Earth’s Mantle

  18. - Convection and the Mantle More on Convection Currents in the Mantle • Click the PHSchool.com button for an activity about convection currents in the mantle.

  19. - Convection and the Mantle Mantle Convection • Click the Video button to watch a movieabout mantle convections.

  20. End of Section:Convection and the Mantle

  21. - Drifting Continents Continental Drift • Wegener’s hypothesis was that all the continents were once joined together in a single landmass.

  22. - Drifting Continents Evidence for Continental Drift • Fossils and rocks found on different continents provide evidence that Earth’s landmasses once were joined together in the supercontinent Pangaea.

  23. - Drifting Continents Evidence for Continental Drift • Fossils and rocks found on different continents provide evidence that Earth’s landmasses once were joined together in the supercontinent Pangaea.

  24. - Drifting Continents Identifying Supporting Evidence • As you read, identify the evidence that supports the hypothesis of continental drift. Write the evidence in a graphic organizer like the one below. Evidence Shape of continents Hypothesis Earth’s continents have moved. Fossils Climate change

  25. - Drifting Continents Links on Continental Drift • Click the SciLinks button for links on continental drift.

  26. End of Section:Drifting Continents

  27. - Sea-Floor Spreading Mid-Ocean Ridges • The East Pacific Rise is just one of the many mid-ocean ridges that wind beneath Earth’s oceans.

  28. - Sea-Floor Spreading What Is Sea-Floor Spreading? • In sea-floor spreading, the sea floor spreads apart along both sides of a mid-ocean ridge as new crust is added. As a result, the ocean floors move like conveyor belts, carrying the continents along with them.

  29. - Sea-Floor Spreading Evidence for Sea-Floor Spreading • Several types of evidence supported Hess’s theory of sea-floor spreading: eruptions of molten material, magnetic stripes in the rock of the ocean floor, and the ages of the rocks themselves.

  30. - Sea-Floor Spreading Subduction at Trenches • In a process taking tens of millions of years, part of the ocean floor sinks back into the mantle through deep-ocean trenches.

  31. - Sea-Floor Spreading Growing an Ocean • Because of sea-floor spreading, the distance between Europe and North America is increasing by a few centimeters per year.

  32. - Sea-Floor Spreading Sequencing • Make a flowchart to show the process of sea-floor spreading. Magma erupts along mid-ocean ridge. Magma cools to form new sea floor. Sea floor spreads away from ridge.

  33. - Sea-Floor Spreading More on Sea-Floor Spreading • Click the PHSchool.com button for an activity aboutsea-floor spreading.

  34. - Sea-Floor Spreading Sea-Floor Spreading • Click the Video button to watch a movieabout sea-floor spreading.

  35. End of Section:Sea-Floor Spreading

  36. - The Theory of Plate Tectonics How Plates Move • The theory of plate tectonics explains the formation, movement, and subduction of Earth’s plates.

  37. - The Theory of Plate Tectonics Plate Boundaries • There are three kinds of plate boundaries: divergent boundaries, convergent boundaries, and transform boundaries. A different type of plate movement occurs along each type of boundary.

  38. 60,000,000 cm ÷ 10,000,000 years = 6 cm/yr To calculate the rate of plate motion, divide the distance the plate moves by the time it takes to move that distance. Rate = distance/time For example, a plate takes two million years to move 156 km. Calculate its rate of motion. 156 km/2,000,000 years = 7.8 cm per year Practice Problem The Pacific plate is sliding past the North American plate. It has take ten million years for the plate to move 600 km. What is the Pacific plate’s rate of motion? - The Theory of Plate Tectonics Calculating a Rate

  39. - The Theory of Plate Tectonics Continental Drift • It has taken the continents about 225 million years since the breakup of Pangaea to move to their present locations.

  40. - The Theory of Plate Tectonics Continental Drift Activity • Click the Active Art button to open a browser window and access Active Art about continental drift.

  41. Key Terms: Examples: divergent boundary rift valley convergent boundary transform boundary - The Theory of Plate Tectonics Building Vocabulary • A definition states the meaning of a word or phrase by telling about its most important feature or function. After you read the section, reread the paragraphs that contain definitions of Key Terms. Use all the information you have learned to write a definition of each Key Term in your own words. Key Terms: Examples: plate The place where two plates move apart, or diverge, is called a divergent boundary. The lithosphere is broken into separate sections called plates. scientific theory A scientific theory is a well-tested concept that explains a wide range of observations. A deep valley called a rift valley forms along the divergent boundary. plate tectonics The theory of plate tectonics states that pieces of Earth’s lithosphere are in slow, constant motion, driven by convection currents in the mantle. The place where two plates come together, or converge, is called a convergent boundary. A transform boundary is a place where two plates slip past each other, moving in opposite directions. fault Faults are breaks in Earth’s crust where rocks have slipped past each other.

  42. End of Section:The Theory of Plate Tectonics

  43. Graphic Organizer Type of Plate Boundary Type of Motion Effect on Crust Feature(s) Formed Transform boundary Plates slide past each other. Crust is sheared. Strike-slip fault Convergent boundary Plates move together. Subduction or mountain building Mountains, volcanoes Divergent boundary Plates move apart. Crust pulled apart by tension forces. Mid-ocean ridge, ocean floor

  44. End of Section:Graphic Organizer