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Waves and Transmission Lines. Wang C. Ng. Traveling Waves. Envelop of a Standing Wave. Load. Waves in a transmission line. Electrical energy is transmitted as waves in a transmission line. Waves travel from the generator to the load (incident wave).

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Presentation Transcript
waves in a transmission line
Waves in a transmission line
  • Electrical energy is transmitted as waves in a transmission line.
  • Waves travel from the generator to the load (incident wave).
  • If the resistance of the load does not match the characteristic impedance of the transmission line, part of the energy will be reflected back toward the generator. This is called the reflected wave
reflection coefficient
Reflection coefficient
  • The ratio of the amplitude of the incident wave (v+ ) and the amplitude the reflective wave (v-) is called the reflection coefficient:
reflection coefficient1
Reflection coefficient
  • The reflection coefficient can be determine from the load impedance and the characteristic impedance of the line:
short circuited load
Short-circuited Load
  • ZL = 0
  • = -1
  • v - = - v + at the load
  • As a result, vL = v + + v - = 0
open circuited load
Open-circuited Load
  • ZL = 
  • = +1
  • v - = v + at the load
  • As a result, vL = v + + v - = 2 v +
resistive load
Resistive Load
  • ZL = Z0
  • = 0
  • v - = 0 at the load
  • As a result, vL = v +
resistive load1
Resistive Load
  • ZL = 0.5 Z0
  • = - 1/3
  • v - = -0.333 v + at the load
  • As a result, vL = v + + v - = 0.667 v +
resistive load2
Resistive Load
  • ZL = 2 Z0
  • = + 1/3
  • v - = 0.333 v + at the load
  • As a result, vL = v + + v - = 1.333 v +
reactive load inductive
Reactive Load (Inductive)
  • ZL = j Z0
  • = + j1
  • v - = v +90 at the load
  • As a result, vL = v + + v - = (1 + j1) v +

= 1.414 v +45

reactive load capacitive
Reactive Load (Capacitive)
  • ZL = -j Z0
  • = - j1
  • v - = v +-90 at the load
  • As a result, vL = v + + v - = (1 - j1) v +

= 1.414 v +-45

smith chart

Smith Chart

Transmission Line

Calculator

slide22

j1

j0.5

j2

j4

0 0.5 1 2 4

j0

-j4

ZL / Z0 = zL = 1 + j 2

-j2

-j0.5

-j1

slide23

imaginary

||

real

0 0.5 1

  0.7 45

= 0.5 + j 0.5

slide24

  0.7 45

zL= 1 + j 2

||

j1

re

j0.5

j2

im

j4

||

0 0.5 1 2 4 

j 0

-j 4

-j2

-j0.5

-j1

slide25

zL= 1 + j 2

90

135

45

j1

j2

j0.5

j4

0 0.5 1 2 4

180

0

j0

-j4

-j0.5

-j2

225

-j1

315

270

  0.7 45

slide26

90

135

45

j1

j2

j0.5

j4

0 0.5 1 2 4

180

0

j0

-j4

-j0.5

-j2

225

-j1

315

  0.45 -120

270

zL= 0.5- j 0.5

slide27

90

F

135

45

j1

j2

j0.5

j4

0 0.5 1 2 4

180

0

A

E

D C B

j0

| |

0 0.5 1

-j4

-j0.5

-j2

225

-j1

315

G

270