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A Power Supply. External view. Power switch. Voltage switch. Socket for power cord. Internal view. Fan. Wires from the power supply to the motherboard and drives. Power Supply Wire Color Conventions. System Board Power Supply Connectors. Notch for keyed connector.

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a power supply
A Power Supply

External view

Power switch

Voltage switch

Socket for power cord

Internal view

Fan

Wires from the power supply to the motherboard and drives

system board power supply connectors
System Board Power Supply Connectors

Notch for keyed connector

A single keyed connector

P8

P9

A pair of connectors

drive power connectors
Drive Power Connectors

Berg connector for floppy disk drive

Molex connectors for IDE and SCSI drives

how surge protectors protect computer equipment
How Surge Protectors Protect Computer Equipment

Electrical current flows from the outlet to the surge protector.

Electrical current that is within tolerance limits for thecurrent flows into the unit and powers its components.

Extra voltage is diverted to the unit’s ground or neutral wire.

slide7
BIOS

TheBasic Input Output System (BIOS) is the set of instruction commands stored on a ROM chip that is used to start the most basic services of a system.

slide8
CMOS

CMOS is an area of memory with battery backup that is used to store the system configuration settings that the ROM BIOS accesses during the startup sequence.

bios settings
BIOS Settings

BIOS settings are the low-level hardware configuration settings that are stored in the CMOS on every computer.

the boot process

POST is run by the BIOS.

CPU checks for BIOS.

BIOS

The Boot Process

Power supply initializes and sends signal to CPU.

Devices identified in CMOS are detected, configured, and tested. PnP devices are detected and configured.

BIOS checks CMOS to locate the disk drive to boot.

Hardware BIOS located, loaded, and run.

BIOS information is displayed on screen and runs system tests, including a memory test.

post results

Video Output

Audio Output

Problem

Solution

None

None

Power

Check power cords, wall voltage, PC’s power supply.

None

Cursor

Power

Check the PC’s power supply; check for sufficient wall voltage.

None

DOS prompt

None

May be a defective speaker.

One short, one long beep

None

Display

Check for monitor power; check video cable; check display adapter.

One or more short beeps

DOS prompt

None (normal startup beep)

None.

Two short beeps

None or incorrect display (garbage)

Display

Check for monitor power; check video cable; check display adapter.

Two short beeps

Error code number

See the next table for a list of error codes and their interpretations.

Repeating short beeps

Probably none

Power

Check the PC’s power supply; check for sufficient wall voltage.

Continuous tone

Probably none

Power

Check the PC’s power supply; check for sufficient wall voltage.

One long, one short beep

Probably none

Motherboard

Check to see that all adapters, SIMMs, and chips are seated firmly; check for proper power connections to the motherboard; use diagnostic software or hardware to further troubleshoot the motherboard.

One long, two short beeps

Probably none

Display

Check for monitor power; check video cable; check display adapter.

One long, three short beeps

Probably none

Display

Check for monitor power; check video cable; check display adapter.

POST Results
post error codes

POST Error Code

Problem

02#

Power

01##

Motherboard

0104

Interrupt controller

0106

Motherboard

0151

Real-time clock or CMOS RAM

0162

CMOS checksum error

0163

Time and date (clock not updating)

164 or 0164

System memory configuration is incorrect

199 or 0199

User-indicated device list is incorrect

02##

Memory

201 or 0201

Memory error (may give memory address)

0202

Memory address error

03##

Keyboard

0301

Stuck key (scan code of the key may be indicated)

0302

Keyboard locked

06##

Floppy disk drive or controller

0601

Floppy disk adapter failure

0602

Disk failure

17##

Hard disk or adapter

1701

Drive not ready or fails tests

1704

Hard drive controller failure

1707

Track 0 failure

1714

Drive not ready

1730 - 1732

Drive adapter failure

POST Error Codes
slide15
CPU

The Central Processing Unit (CPU) is the integrated circuit that controls all of the system components.

bus types
Bus Types
  • Internal
  • External
  • System (frontside)
  • Data
  • Address
  • Control
  • Backside
cpu performance factors
CPU Performance Factors
  • Clock speed
  • Millions of Instructions Per Second (MIPS)
  • Amount of RAM that a processor can access
  • Multiprocessing
  • Cache
  • Superscalar
  • Superpiplining
  • Speculative execution
  • Branch prediction
  • Register renaming
  • Out-of-order completion
  • Dual Independent Bus (DIB)
  • Multimedia Extensions (MMX)
  • Single Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD)
a system board without a daughter board
A System Board Without a Daughter Board

AGP slot

Ports

Expansion slots

CPU

RAM

Drive interfaces

clock speed
Clock Speed

Clock speed refers to the number of cycles per second or frequency at which the CPU operates (e.g. 800 MHz).

full size at system board
Full-Size AT System Board

SDRAM slots

Power connector (ATX)

Keyboard connector

AGP slot

Chipset

PCI slot

ZIF socket

ISA slot

AT socket 7 motherboard

BIOS chip

baby at system board
Baby AT System Board

REAR

Keyboard connector

Power connector

Peripheral connectors

PCI/ISA slots

CPU

FRONT

Memory slots

lpx system board
LPX System Board

PCI/ISA slots on riser

REAR

Peripheral connectors

Memory slots

CPU

FRONT

atx system board
ATX System Board

REAR

I/O connector

CPU

Power connector

PCI/ISA slots

Memory slots

Peripheral connectors

FRONT

nlx system board
NLX System Board

Power connector

Peripheral

connectors

FRONT

PCI/ISA slots

Memory slots

CPU

AGP port

REAR

system case enclosure styles
System Case Enclosure Styles

Mid-size tower

Micro-size tower

Full-size tower

Desktop

a generic atx system board
A Generic ATX System Board

25-pin parallel port connector

9-pin serial port connector

USB connector

PS/2 mouse and keyboard connectors

PCI expansion slots

AGP port

CPU

DIMM sockets

ATX power supply connector

Lithium backup battery

UltraDMA EIDE connector

Floppy disk drive connector

dip switches and jumpers
DIP Switches and Jumpers

Open, or Off

Closed, or On

Open, or Off

Closed, or On

Switch or switch block

Jumper block

common sources of system board problems
Common Sources of System Board Problems
  • Computer viruses infecting the system, including the BIOS.
  • Loose connections between system components and the system board.
  • Out-of-date BIOS.
  • CMOS battery is not holding the BIOS information.
  • Damage to the CPU due to overheating or electrical damage.
  • Electrical shorts on the system board due to improperly seated components, power surges, or ESD.
  • Physical damage to the system board.
parity
Parity

1 parity bit

8 data bits

adding ram to a system
Adding RAM to a System

20 pins

60 pins

88 pins

Lock

symptoms of memory problems
Symptoms of Memory Problems
  • Computer crashes or reboots itself periodically.
  • Application data is corrupted.
  • Memory errors are displayed on the screen.
  • Computer appears to boot, but the screen remains blank.
  • Computer does not boot; POST beep codes are heard.
  • Newly installed memory is not recognized.