Long-Term Memory Disorder Functional Limitations Inconsistent when learning new information/facts (might remember one day and not the next) Difficulty remembering rote facts Difficulty/Inability to process and recall information through associations (events, related ideas and concepts, and names)
Long-Term Memory Disorder Strategies Utilize assistive memory strategies that tie into the student’s memory style Eliminate as many auditory and visual distractions as possible Have student vocalize as he/she writes, works math problems, etc.
Long-Term Retrieval Disorder Functional Limitations Difficulty/Inability to recall information on tests • Difficulty/Inability to retrieve words from memory • Difficulty/Inability to pair, retain and retrieve visual and/or auditory information • Difficulty/Inability to recite poems, speeches, plays, etc. from memory
Long-Term Retrieval Disorder Strategies Teach student mnemonic strategies Help student develop his/her own mnemonic devices Have student record all appointments, important information, etc. him/herself – no matter how long it takes!
Processing Speed Disorder Functional Limitations Slow and/or uneven automatic processing speed Difficulty/Inability to complete assignments within imposed timed constraints Difficulty/Inability to take timed tests Difficulty/Inability to make comparisons rapidly between and among bits of information
Processing Speed Disorder Activity
Processing Speed Disorder Strategies Begin working on assignments long before the are due Provide structured segues between tasks Provide instruction in word-processing if student is not computer literate
Reasoning Disorder Functional Limitations Trouble thinking in an orderly, logical manner Difficulty/Inability to prioritize and sequence tasks Difficulty/Inability to apply a learned skill to a new task
Reasoning Disorder Strategies Steps, structure must be explicitly taught Help student develop his/her own step-by-step processes Keep instruction on a concrete level Help student prioritize and sequence work, schedule, etc.
Short-Term Memory Disorder Functional Limitations Difficulty/Inability to remember steps in sequential order Difficulty/Inability to retain information and/or concepts long enough to understand them • Difficulty/Inability to follow directions
Short-Term Memory Disorder Functional Limitations Difficulty/Inability to remember math problems and retain numerical information Difficulty/Inability to take notes during a lecture Difficulty/Inability to answer oral questions
Short-Term Memory Disorder Strategies Pay attention to student’s “memory” style Have student repeat back to you what he/she “heard” Eliminate all possible auditory & visual distractions Have student vocalize as he/she writes, works math problems, etc.
Short-Term Retrieval Disorder Functional Limitations Difficulty/Inability to repeat back auditory information immediately after hearing the information • Difficulty/Inability to retrieve information during a lecture so that notes can be taken Difficulty/Inability to re-create visual information immediately after presentation of the information Difficulty/Inability to retrieve information read at the beginning of a reading assignment
Short-Term Retrieval Disorder Strategies Teach student mnemonic strategies Help student develop his/her own mnemonic devices Have student record all appointments, important information, etc. him/herself – no matter how long it take
Spatial Organization Disorder Functional Limitations • Problems perceiving the dimensions of space • Difficulty/Inability to align number or letters on a page Difficulty/Inability to see things in the right order Trouble distinguishing left from right, north from south, up from down, ahead from behind, etc
Spatial Organization Disorder Strategies Have student use graph paper or lined notebook paper turned sideways to provide regimented spaces for working problems Have student do all written work on the computer Have student use an electronic spell checker, a text-to-speech spell checker may work best
Spelling Dyspraxia Functional Limitations Difficulty/Inability to spell words correctly on a consistent basis
Spelling Dyspraxia Strategies Have students with an auditory processing disorder try a “text-to-speech” spell checker – it probably won’t work – but it’s worth a try – have all other students use any electronic spell checker that works for them
Visual Processing Disorder Functional Limitations Difficulty/Inability to take in information through the sense of sight Difficulty/Inability to process visual information • Difficulty/Inability to fill-in computerized exam forms • Trouble/Inability to see a specific image within a competing background, such as picking a sentence out of a page of text
Visual Processing Disorder Functional Limitations Trouble/Inability to see the difference between two objects Difficulty/Inability to copy information off the board or from PowerPoint slides or overheads Difficulty/Inability to “see” mistakes
Visual Processing Disorder Functional Limitations Difficulty/Inability to comprehend maps, charts, graphs, etc. Difficulty with geometry Difficulty/Inability to align number or letters on a page Fatigue when reading; often rubs eyes off and on while reading
Visual Processing Disorder Functional Limitations Difficulty/Inability to work math problems on scrap paper and then to transfer the numbers accurately to the exam sheet Trouble/Inability to see how far away or near an object is
Visual Processing Disability Activity
Visual Processing Disorder Strategies Use visual cues, such as highlighting, bolding, underlining, drawing arrows and other directional signs, and/or using pictures Always use lot’s of “white space” Select materials with simple visual layouts Use color for visual impact
Visual Processing Disorder Strategies • Be sure print is large enough to be processed • Use checklists, graphs, and other visual aids • Use simple drawings • Over teach visual patterns in numbers and words found in math problems
Visual Processing Disorder Strategies Put only a few problems on each page with lots of space in between problems Block out as much of the visual stimuli on a page as possible – so the student can “see” the particular item he/she needs to work on
Writing Disorder Functional Limitations Difficulty/Inability to write sentences, paragraphs, and/or papers • Difficulty/Inability to sequence sentences and paragraphs • Difficulty/Inability to take notes in class
Writing Disorder Functional Limitations Difficulty/Inability to get thoughts on paper Difficulty/Inability to spell words correctly on a consistent basis
Writing Disability Examples
Writing Disorder Strategies (low-tech) - Have student “talk” paper into a tape recorder and then transcribe the paper from the tape recorder to paper (may have to teach how to do this) (high-tech) – Have student utilize “speech-to-text software to construct paper and then edit Edit student’s papers without altering the content
Writing Disorder Strategies Teach the “sticky note” method of writing Allow the student to use a computer with a spell-checking program Have student map, outline, or diagram his/her ideas prior to beginning to write Teach “stream of consciousness” writing
Writing Disorder Strategies Accept oral presentations or tape-recorded reports for written reports when appropriate Accept briefest possible written form of an answer
General Strategies for Working with Students with LD Break teaching and lab assignments into steps. Make sure steps are in sequence. Teach skills step-by-step, clarifying and building one step upon another Give instructions in as many modalities as possible Provide short and concise directions or instructions
General Strategies Give students extra time to practice on equipment and to complete assignments Encourage students to stand close during demonstrations and to sit in front of the class during lectures Review at the beginning of class (or learning session); summarize at the end of class (or learning session) Highlight and repeat important information
General Strategies On multiple choice tests, use only Capital Letters before each possible answer NEVER, EVER USE ALL CAPITAL LETTERS IN A SENTENCE, PARAGRAPH, PAPER, ETC. Allow extra time to complete assignments and exams Use color,color and more color
General Strategies Permit students to tape-record classes, so that they may listen to the information more than once Read aloud information/material that is written on the board or that is given in handouts, transparencies, or on PowerPoint slides
LD Case Study - A Sydney is a student who has experienced difficulties in school since she entered pre-school. While these difficulties appeared to be mild in nature prior to the 3rd grade, during the 3rd grade she experienced pronounced difficulties in following written instructions/directions, working applied mathematics problems, understanding graphs and charts, and in understanding what she was reading. It should also be noted that Sydney’s cognitive abilities (IQ) are in the superior range and she has been in a gifted and talented program since grade school.
LD Case Study - B Lisa is a student who baffles her teachers on a regular basis. She has an “A” average for both her homework assignments and her class quizzes (in every single class she is taking). However, she fails every single test she takes, especially those tests that are cumulative in nature. In addition Lisa has to spend hour upon hour reviewing course information to be able to utilize the information at the appropriate time.
LD Case Study - C Larry is the best writing tutor that the Learning Assistance Center employs. He is also an editor for the student paper and the annual anthology of prose and poetry that is produced by the institution’s students. However, he never arrives to work on time and always seems to get off the elevator at the wrong floor. In addition, when he needs to venture to other floors in the same building as the Learning Assistance Center, one of the other tutors has to escort him so that Larry doesn’t get lost. Finally, while he is in his junior year of college and is taking mostly upper division English courses, he still cannot pass the developmental mathematics class.