The psychodynamic perspective: NeoFreudians AP Psychology
Psychodynamic Perspective • A more modern view of personality that retains some aspects of Freudian theory but rejects other aspects • Retains the importance of the unconscious mind • Less emphasis on unresolved childhood conflicts
Neo-Freudians • Disagreed with Freud in his belief that: • Behavior is motivated by sexual urges • Personality is formed by early childhood experiences • Human nature and society are inherently driven by sex and destruction. • Followers of Freud’s theories but developed theories of their own in areas where they disagreed with Freud
Post-Freudian Psychodynamic TheoriesThe Neo-Freudians • Carl Jung’s collective unconscious • Karen Horney’s focus on security • Alfred Adler’s individual psychology
Carl Jung (Yoong)(1875-1961) • Rejected Freud’s assertion that human behavior is directed by sex & aggression. • Believed in general psychic energy that pushes us to grow psychologically. • First to describe introverts and extroverts
Carl Jung (Yoong)(1875-1961) Introverts Extroverts Extroverts are people who are outgoing, like social events, and enjoy talking to other people. • Introverts are shy people who like to be by themselves and prefer quiet events. • Can make friends, just don’t NEED them Video
Carl Jung (Yoong)(1875-1961) • Jung believed that within the collective unconscious are archetypes, symbols that represent various ideas and thoughts. • For example, snakes represent evil, or a mother represents nurturing. • Jung argued that children are inherently afraid of snakes, because this knowledge is contained in the collective unconscious passed from generation to generation, promoting survival and protection.
Archetypes • Anima • sense of “femaleness” in males • Animus • sense of “maleness” in females • Other archetypes: • “The Shadow”- dark side inside us all • the hero • the wise old man • the nurturing mother. • Archetypes – Mental images of human instincts, themes and preoccupations that are shared by all cultures. • Often expressed in a culture’s mythology & folk tales.
Karen Horney (HORN-eye)(1885-1952) • Believed cultural/social variables (especially parent-child relationships) are the foundation of personality development not sex like Freud.
Karen Horney (HORN-eye)(1885-1952) • Found psychoanalysis negatively biased against women. • Women didn’t have “penis envy” it was instead that they envied men’s superior status in society. • Instead said men have “womb envy” and compensate by making creative achievements in their work.
Karen Horney (HORN-eye)(1885-1952) • Looked at anxiety related to security and social relationships, especially parent-child relationships. • Basic anxiety— “the feeling of being isolated and helpless in a hostile world”
Karen Horney (HORN-eye)(1885-1952) • Felt that healthy personalities are flexible in balancing these needs and anxieties • but unhealthy people are stuck in one of three ways of dealing with anxiety.
Karen Horney (HORN-eye)(1885-1952) • Deal with this anxiety by. • Moving Toward Other People – having an excessive need for approval & affection • People who are classified as this relationship become bothered, or act differently when they are not given enough attention or support from friends and family.
Karen Horney (HORN-eye)(1885-1952) • Deal with this anxiety by. • Moving Against Other People – having an excessive need for power over other people • People who are classified with this relationship become irritated and act differently when they are not in control or allowed to make decisions in group settings.
Karen Horney (HORN-eye)(1885-1952) • People in this relationship become upset when they are not given enough “alone time”, or are constantly being asked questions by others. • Deal with this anxiety by. • Moving Away from Other People – having an excessive need for independence making them aloof and detached from others.
Alfred Adler (1870-1937) • Agreed with Freud on the importance of early childhood but thought social tensions were more important than sexual tensions • Believed psychological problems were the result of feelings of inferiority • Inferiority Complex - A condition that comes from being unable to compensate for normal inferiority feelings
Alfred Adler (1870-1937) • Inferiority Complex - A condition that comes from being unable to compensate for normal inferiority feelings
Alfred Adler (1870-1937) • Children often argue with parents about being able to do something by themselves. • Adler believed children wanted to show their parents that they are capable of doing things on their own and are not dependent on them and hence inferior. • Adler also believed that people brag to cover up to make other people forget or not notice their inferiorities.
Evaluating & UpdatingFreud’s Psychoanalytic Theory Neo-Freudians
Evaluation of psychoanalysis • Evidence is inadequate— Freud’s data is developed from a small number of upper class patients or from self-analysis. (skewed sample) • All of Freud’s data was from him so was he imposing his own ideas onto his patients or seeing only what he expected to see? • Theory is not testable—lack of operational definitions and no way to measure results. Good at explaining the past but not at prediction. • Many psychoanalytic concepts impossible to disprove because even contradictory information can be used to support Freud’s theory. • Sexism—believed that women were weak and inferior. Used male psychology as basis for all people • Said women were more vain, masochistic, and jealous than men and influenced more by their emotions and had a lesser moral and ethical sense than men.
Updating Freud’s theories • Most psychodynamic psychologists agree: • Sex is not the basis of personality. • People do not “fixate” at various stages of development. • Much of a person’s mental life is unconscious. • Childhood experiences shape us socially and psychologically. • People struggle with inner conflicts and regulating their impulses, emotions and thoughts toward what society deems acceptable.