Canada 1960-1980. John Deifenbaker PM 57-63. Bill of rights Freedom of speech, religion, Right to life, liberty and security of person Right to council Reduction in Canadian military. Avro Areo. Lester B Pearson “Mike”. Canadian Pension Plan 66 Universal Medicare 66
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John Deifenbaker PM 57-63 • Bill of rights • Freedom of speech, religion, • Right to life, liberty and security of person • Right to council • Reduction in Canadian military. • Avro Areo
Lester B Pearson “Mike” • Canadian Pension Plan 66 • Universal Medicare 66 • Royal commission on bilingualism and biculturalism • New flag 1965
To cut symbolic ties with Britain and strengthen relations with QuebecPearson looked to develop a new flag
Pierre Elliott Trudeau • Trudeaumania • Just society • Official languages act 1969 (French and English) • Multiculturalism 1971 • Removal of Bomarc Missiles • Metric system • Canadian Constitution and charter of rights and freedoms
Joe Clark 1979 May-Dec • Joe who.
French English Relations • Quiet Revolution 1960-1966: Maitres Chez nous (masters of our own house) • Change: move away from the church, improve welfare state, reform education, unionize the public sector, control the economy • PartiQuebecios is formed: • 1968 Rene Levesque leads party as they push for a sovereignty association • Official Languages act 1969: • All federal services offered in French and English, all products labeled in French and English and the start of Immersion programs were implemented across the country
Front de Liberation du Quebec(FLQ) • Their plan was to use violence to force separation for Quebec. • 1960- formation of the FLQ • 1963-(Mar) FLQ adopt terrorist tactics bomb mail boxes, trash cans and government buildings • 1963-64 FLQ leaders visit Cuba and learn guerrilla warfare tactics. • 1965-66 FLQ set up cells, robbed banks and bombed companies with labour problems to gain workers support. • 1967-69 Re-organization of the FLQ, bomb Montreal stock exchange.
OCTOBER CRISIS • Plan was to kidnap important foreign dignitaries and continue to kidnap more until the government gave into their separatists demands. • • 5 Oct 1970, British trade commissioner James Cross was taken at gunpoint for his home by Jacques Planteau & his cell. • • FLQ communiqué demanded the release of 23 “political prisoners”, 1 million dollars, & their manifesto to be read over the national airways. • The government refused to give in to the kidnappers demands but did concede to reading the manifesto on radio & TV.
10 Oct –FLQ kidnap Labour Minister & Deputy premier of Quebec • Panic spreads though out Quebec. Premier Bourassa wants to negotiate, but Trudeau refuses as he sees it as a sign of weakness. • 16 Oct – Trudeau proclaims the war measures act. Army is deployed and the police arrest 465 people.
17 Oct in response to the war measures act, Pierre Laporte is strangled and found in the trunk of a car on the St Hubert military base. • 4 Dec – Cross is found and released after his kidnappers negotiate passage and safe haven in cuba. 1978 Cross’s kidnappers return from exile in cuba to face justice. • 28 Dec Laporte’s murderers arrested. Released in 1982.
Gendron Commission: 1968-1972: English dominated the work place, • Francophone’searned less, inequalities in work place, declining French birth rate, • high immigration of non francophone’s into Quebec educating their children in English. • French would not survive in NA • recommend, French official language, French in work place and signs in French. • Bill 22 1974: Bourassa implemented, recommendations of commission, made French official language, restricted English language schooling, and promoted French in the work place by mandating that contracts be done in French.
PartiQuebecios elected 1976: Non violent separatist party • Bill 101: 1977 Replaced bill 22, “Charter of French language bill” French to be language used by government and business, further restrictions on English schools, and all commercial signs must be in French. Challenged in court in 1988 supreme court found it did violate the constitution however the notwithstanding clause allows it. New bill 178 allows indoor signs to be in both French and English. • Le Drainage: (Acadian term: the slow and relentless Anglicization of francophone communities) • 1970 6% Manitoba’s population spoke French 1991 4.4%. • Vancouver libraries catalogued French in the foreign languages section. • PQ only spoke for French inside Quebec and had little regard for the back lash their policies caused for other French Canadians.
Economy: • 1960-67 Rapid expansion of Canada’s economy exports doubled 7-14 billion with an unemployment rate of 4.1% • 1973 Canada rated best economy in world to live Economist • Mid 1970’s Economic crisis of Stagflation where high unemployment and high inflation • Wide regional disparities • Dependency on USA • Exporting resource economy • national debt. From 17 Billion – 200 Billion
Oil Crisis 1973 Organization of petroleum exporting countries • (OPEC) Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia raised the price from 3-12 $ a barrel, This hit hard cold climate, high standard of living, & size • National energy program: • Trudeau froze price Canadian producers could charge Canadians and subsidized cost of oil imported (of course only eastern Canada imported oil from OPEC nations) Put tariff on exported oil from Alta to subsidies the east. • 1975 Wage and price controls: • Only allow a set % increase in wages 10%, 1976, 8% 1975 & 6% 1976 Anti inflation board. Both prices and wages had to be approved for either to increase. Ended 1978
Foreign Investment Review Agency (FIRA): • 1973 approve establishment of any foreign companies in Canada • Canadian Development Corporation: • 1971 Purchase foreign controlled businesses in Canada • Petro Canada Created 1975: • Crown corporation, promote exploration and development of new oil and gas resources • Western alienation high during Trudeau’s reign in power
International Involvement • Cuban Missile Crisis: • US spy planes find evidence of USSR building missile silos in Cuba. • USA sets naval blockade putting forces on high alert. • Vietnam Conflict: 1954-75: • 30,000 Canadian volunteered (still not recognized) • sold equipment worth 10 billion to the US. • 20,000 draft dodgers and 12,000 deserters came to Canada our government refused American efforts to deport them. • In 1965 Pearson publicly criticized US’s involvement in Vietnam, Later he was verbally and physically berated by Lyndon Johnson. 400 Canadians died.
Cyprus 1964-1993: • Canadian peace keepers sent to the island to stop fighting between the Turks and the Greeks. • 30 Canadians died cost 600 million. • Recognition of The Peoples Republic of China 1970: • Canada pushed for the recognition of communist China • finally accepted by the USA in 1971 replacing re-placing modern day Taiwan on the security council • Agence de Cooperation culturelle et technique: • 1970 Develop culture and technical cooperation of French speaking nations (particularly Africa)
1968 Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA): Created to oversee assistance to developing nations and coordinate Canadian aid money • Expo 67: World Fair in Montreal: Islands were built to house the various venues. 50 million visitors. Charles de Gaulle caused an international incident when he shouted “Vive le Quebec Libre” (long live a free Quebec) Pearson refused to see him and asked him to leave Canada • NATO: 1970’s Under Trudeau funding and support of troops in Europe decreased • Cuba & Mexico: 1970’s Canada increases political ties and trade under the Trudeau government. Anger of USA.
Water pollution Prevention Act 1969: created costal zone in Northwest Passage showed Canada’s ownership. • Green Peace 1970: The legendary environmental group founded in Vancouver starts its campaign to stop nuclear testing and inhumane treatment of animals by putting ships in harms way (big game of chicken)
Immigration • 1962 Removal of (overt) racial discrimination: • Establish themselves here with out support (have money) • Sponsorship from Relatives providing they were from Europe and other NATO nations. Only “close relatives” clause applied to Asians & Africans. This did not include brothers and sisters. • 1967 Point system added where points awarded based on education, training, experience, occupational demand, perceived adaptability, age & knowledge of English or French. • 1978 Immigration act (opened the door to all immigrants) • Family • Refugee • Independent • Prohibited those that were a risk to public health, safety, order or national security.
Culture: • Counter culture: youths views and values were often opposite of parents. “the 60’s” Era of protest • Drugs Marijuana, LSD, Amphetamines, and Barbiturates. • Tied dyed T’s, old jeans, bare feet and long hair. Hippies rejected the establishment. • Slogans “flower power”, “power to the people” and “peace” • Youthquake: fight against Vietnam, and Nuclear weapons
Asians: 1960’s Toronto China town demolished for new city hall: • Blacks: 1962 Africville bulldozed without consultation to make way for industrial space. • Created in 1850 with no basic necessities. • 1968 BUF (Black United Front) created to push for African Canadian rights.
The second wave of Feminism: the women’s liberation movement. • Started in 1960’s • led by educated middle class women • Goals of the second wave of feminism: • Equal pay legislation • Paid maternity leave • Removal of glass ceilings • End of sexual exploitation of pornography and beauty pageants • Establishment of rape crisis centers • Changes to the abortion law.
Mainstream feminist: who felt that they could change values by passing legislation and publicizing their cause through the media. • Radical Feminist; who focused on concept of power and felt that society was set up for men who would not give up their power so it must be sized from them. • Eliminate stereo types • Change child rearing practices • Change education practices • Change clothing styles
Royal commission (Bird Commission) on the status of women 1967-1970 • Women should chose whether to work outside the home • Child care is the responsibility of both parents • Society has a responsibility to pregnant women • In certain area women will require special treatment to correct past discrimination (affirmative action) • Due to affirmative action the wage gap between men and women has gone from 60 cents / dollar to 80cents/ dollar.
Poverty and Women: • Education: women tend not to take senior math and science courses in high school limited choices at university and the work force. Women tend to cluster in pink-collar jobs like clerical, retail and service. When they do become doctors and lawyers they do not specialize. • Systemic discrimination: women are passed over for promotion. • Poverty through divorce: • Awarded care of dependent children • Women may not have worked for many years decreasing earning power • Often husbands fail to provide regular child support. • Good affordable daycare is not available. • Old age: many past generations may not have savings • Minority women: unable to get jobs due to lack of English or French
Aboriginals: • 1960 Suffrage: given the right to vote federally • 1969 White paper: Trudeau and Chretien wanted to change the reserve system by abolishing them and end special status for treaty Indians. Equality necessary to right the wrongs. Both the National Indian Brotherhood (rep status Indians) and Native Council of Canada were created. Repealed in 1971 • 1974 Office of native claims created to deal with comprehensive and specific land claims. • 1975 Declaration of First nations: rights of nationhood and self-government.