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Basic of Programming Language. Skill Area 304.1. Materials Prepared by Dhimas Ruswanto , BMm. Lecture Overview. Computer System Computer Program Programming Language Programmer Translators. Computer System. Computer System. Processing (CPU/Memory). Input Devices. Output Devices.

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basic of programming language

Basic of Programming Language

Skill Area 304.1

Materials Prepared by DhimasRuswanto, BMm

lecture overview
Lecture Overview
  • Computer System
  • Computer Program
  • Programming Language
  • Programmer
  • Translators
computer system1
Computer System



Input Devices



Storage Devices

  • Also called CPU, processor or microprocessor
  • “Brains” of the computer
  • Performs all computer operations
main memory
Main Memory
  • Where all the input data and results stored
    • Random Access Memory (RAM)
    • Read Only Memory (ROM)
  • RAM is volatile =data are lost when computer is turned off
  • Read current info and also write new info
  • Very important in determining capabilities of the computer system
  • Stores work when they are in use.
    • Word Document
    • Spreadsheet
    • Power Point
  • ROM is non-volatile= permanent and are not affected where computer is turned lost
  • Can read info Stored in ROM
  • Can not write new info into ROM
  • Used for “internal workings” of computer
    • Boot Software
computer program1
Computer Program
  • A program or computer programis a set of instructions that tells a computer how to perform a particular task.
  • Programs are developed using programming language.
  • Computer programming is the art of developing computer programs.
  • Programming is rather like a recipe; describe the ingredients (the data) and the sequence of steps (the process)
computer program cont d
Computer Program (cont’d)
  • A program is developed to help the activity of humans easier
  • Examples:
    • Banks
    • Communication
    • Business
    • Medical Science
    • Education
    • Travel and Ticketing
    • Daily Life
    • etc
programming language
Programming Language
  • A programming language is a vocabulary and set of grammatical rules for instructing a computer to perform specific tasks
  • Programming language provides a set of rules to develop a program.


  • A Programmeris a person who writes a computer program.
  • The job of programmer is to convert a solution to a problem into set of instructions understood by a computer.
  • The programmer should test the program to see whether it is working.
  • Corrective actions should be taken if not working properly.

Programmer (cont’d)

When we want to write a program to solve a problem,

  • the hardest is to know how to start,
  • we also need to work out the steps to take for reaching the solution,
  • we also need to be sure that the program works without errors, according to the specifications.

Why Programming?

  • Three good reasons for learning programming:
    • Programming helps you understand computers.
    • Writing a few simple programs increases your confidence level.
    • Learning programming lets you find out quickly whether you like programming and whether you have the analytical turn of mind programmers need.

Types of Programming Language

  • Three types of Programming Language
    • Machine Language
    • Assembly Language
    • High-Level Language

Machine Language

  • The lowest and most elementary level of Programming Language.
  • 1st type of PL to be developed.
  • Represented inside the computer by a String of binary digits (bits) 0 and 1.
  • The symbol 0 stands for the absence of Electric Pulse and 1 for the presence of an electric pulse

WhyMachine Language?

  • Their order tells the computer what to do.
  • All other kinds of software need to be translated into machine code before they can be used.

Assembly Language

  • Symbolic instruction what humans can understand
  • Form of alphanumeric symbols known as mnemonic codes.
  • Can have maximum up to 5 letter combination
  • E.g.
    • ADD for addition
    • SUB for subtraction

Why Assembly Language?

  • Maps directly into machine language
  • Designed for a family of microprocessors



JMP 100







High-Level Language

  • High-Level language is basically symbolic languages that use English words and/or mathematical symbols rather than mnemonic codes.
  • Each instruction in the high-level language is translated into many machine language instructions.

Purpose of High-Level Language

  • To enable people (programmer) to write program easily and in their own native language environment (English).
  • Examples:
    • C, C++, Java, VB, HTML

Types of High-Level Language

  • Languages have been developed for general purpose and specific purpose
  • Types of High-Level Languages:
    • Algebraic Formula-Type Processing
    • Business Data Processing
    • String and List Processing
    • Object Oriented Programming Language (OOP)
    • Visual Programming Language


  • Types of Programming Language Translators:
    • Assembler
    • Interpreter
    • Compiler


  • To convert the assembly language into machine code.
  • Translate mnemonic operation codes to their machine language equivalents.


  • A computer program that executes instructions written in a programming language and do not produces the executable file.
  • Interpreter:
    • Checks the keywords of a program
    • Taking one instruction at a time and convert it into machine language before taking upon the next instruction.
  • Examples of interpreter based language:
    • PHP, JavaScript, BASIC


  • A program that changes source code (high-level language) to object code which that can be executedby a machine.
  • Compiler:
    • Checks syntax of program
    • Checks at a time all the program
  • Primary reason for compiling source code is to create an executable program
  • Examples of compiler based language:
    • C, C++, JAVA


  • Executables: Files that actually do something by carrying out a set of instructions.
  • E.g., .exe files in Windows
  • Once the executable is there, it can be called by the user to process the given inputs to a program and produce the desired outputs.

Computer System (CPU, Main Memory, Keyboard, Mouse, etc)

  • Computer Program
    • a set of instructions that tells a computer how to perform a particular task.
  • Programming Language
    • a vocabulary and set of grammatical rules for instructing a computer to perform specific tasks
    • Programmer - a person who writes a computer program
  • Types of PL
    • Machine Language
    • Assembly Language
    • High-Level Language
  • Translators
    • Interpreter
    • Assembler
    • Compiler