slide1 n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Locomotor System 运动系统 PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Locomotor System 运动系统

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 60

Locomotor System 运动系统 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 192 Views
  • Uploaded on

Locomotor System 运动系统. ①bones( 骨 ) ;  ② joints( 关节 ) ;  ③ skeletal muscles ( 骨骼肌 ). . locomotor system. ①bones( 骨 ) ②joints( 关节 ). skeleton( 骨骼 ). The functions of locomotor system include: ①to provide a framework for the body, ②movement,.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Locomotor System 运动系统' - chandra-vaikunth


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide1

Locomotor System

运动系统

slide2

①bones(骨);

②joints(关节);

③skeletal muscles (骨骼肌). 

locomotor system

①bones(骨)

②joints(关节)

skeleton(骨骼)

slide3

The functions of locomotor system include:

①to provide a framework for the body,

②movement,

slide4

③to protect important organs such as brain, heart, lungs, and liver etc.

④ to be a storehouse of minerals, such as calcium, phosphorus etc.

⑤to form blood cells.

slide6

Ⅰ. What is bone?

Bone is the hard organs in the body except teeth. There are 206 bones in adults. They possesses the ability of repairing(修复), regeneration (再生) and reconstruction (重建).

slide8

1. Classification of Bones based on positions

skull(颅骨)

bones of trunk (躯干骨)

appendicular bones (附肢骨)

bones

Bones of upper limb

Bones of lower limb

appendicular bones

slide9

skull/cranium

Bones of trunk

Bones of upper limb

Bones of lower limb

slide10

2. Classification of Bones based on shape

①long bones(长骨) 

②short bones(短骨) 

③flat bones (扁骨) 

④irregular bones (不规则骨) 

bones

slide11

Ⅲ. The Structure of Bones

①bony substance(骨质)

②periosteum (骨膜)

③bone marrow (骨髓)

Bones

red bone marrow 红骨髓

bone marrow

yellow bone marrow 黄骨髓

slide12

Ⅳ.The Chemical Composition and Physical Properties of Bones

①organic components 有机成分

②inorganic components 无机成分

Chemical Composition of Bone

in adult, organic /inorganic≈3:7

slide13

The organic materials (有机质, e.g. collagen) form 30-40% the dry weight of bone.

The inorganic materials (无机质, mineral salts, e.g. calcium phosphate) form 60-70% the dry weight of the bone.

slide14

The organic materials give the bones resilience and toughness;

The inorganic materialsgive them hardness and rigidity.

The physical properties of the bones depend upon the chemical components.

slide15

In infants and children, the organic components are relatively more than those in adults, so their bones are softer, and are easy to be deformed.

slide16

In old people, the inorganic components are comparatively more, and bone fracture(骨折) in the aged people is more often.

slide17

By submerging a bone in a mineral acid (such as hydrochloric acid, HCl) the salts can be removed, but the organic materials remain. Such a specimen(标本) is flexible. For example, a decalcified (脱钙的) fibula can be tied in a knot.

slide18

By burning a bone with fire, the organic material is removed, this bone is more brittle than porcelain(瓷器). It is crumbled and fractured easily.

slide19

Ⅴ.The Blood and Nerve Supply of Bones

The bones are furnished with an abundance of fine arterioles and nerves.

slide20

Epiphysial artery骨骺动脉

Metaphysial artery 干骺端动脉

Nutrient artery 滋养动脉

Periosteal artery 骨膜动脉

slide21

Ⅵ.The Development of Bones

Bone develops from mesoderm(中胚层) at about the eighth gestational week (孕周).

slide22

①intramembranous ossification (膜内成骨/膜化骨) 

② intracartilaginous ossification (软骨内成骨/软骨化骨) 

patterns of ossification(骨化) :

slide23

Ⅶ. The Functions of Bones

(1)to be the framework of the body;

(2) to be the levers for muscles;

(3) to protect certain important organs;

(4) to be the sites for the development of blood cells;

(5) to be the storehouse of calcium and phosphorus.

slide26

skull

Bones of trunk

Humerus 肱骨

Bones of upper limb

Radius 桡骨

Hip bone 髋骨

Bones of lower limb

femur 股骨

tibia 胫骨

slide27

bone

articular capsule

articular surface

joint

articular cavity

bone

slide29

origin

起点

insertion

止点

slide30

flat bone

irregular bone

long bone

short bone

slide31

关节面articular sursace

epiphysis骨骺

metaphysis干骺端

shaft骨干

articular sursace关节面

metaphysis干骺端

epiphysis骨骺

slide32

epiphysis骨骺

metaphysis干骺端

shaft骨干

metaphysis干骺端

epiphysis骨骺

slide33

epiphysial line 骺线

cancellous bone骨松质

compact bone骨密质

medullary cavity骨髓腔

slide34

periosteum 骨膜

bone marrow 骨髓

articular sursace关节面

articular cartilage关节软骨

slide35

Short bones (短骨)Carpal bones

Long bones 长骨Metacarpal bones and phalanges

Anterior view of right hand bones

slide36

Long bones 长骨(Metacarpal bones and phalanges)

Short bones 短骨

(tarsal bones 跗骨)

slide39

outer plate 外板

diploe 板障

inner plate内板

calvaria of skull 颅盖骨

slide40

facial cranium

面颅骨

vertebra

椎骨

Hip bone 髋骨

tibia 胫骨

slide42

cerebral cranium

facial cranium 面颅骨

slide43

Iliac fossa

Iliac crest

Anterior superior iliac spine

Auricular surface

Anterior inferior iliac spine

Greater sciatic notch

Arcuate line

Ischial spine

Pecten pubis

lesser sciatic notch

pubic tubercle

Symphysial surface

Ischial tuberosity

slide44

Maxillary sinus 上颌窦

Medial view of maxila

slide45

periosteum 骨膜

bone marrow 骨髓

articular sursace关节面

articular cartilage关节软骨

slide46

epiphysial line 骺线

cancellous bone骨松质

bony substance骨质

compact bone骨密质

medullary cavity骨髓腔

slide47

cancellous bone骨松质

epiphysial line 骺线

compact bone骨密质

medullary cavity骨髓腔

slide48

cancellous bone骨松质

compact bone骨密质

slide49

①fibrous membrane (纤维膜, outer layer)

②vascular membrane (血管膜, inner layer)

periosteum 骨膜

The vascular membrane is lined with bone-forming cells, the osteoblasts (成骨细胞).

slide50

The periosteum plays important roles in the regeneration of the bones. In order to prevent the bony necrosis(坏死) or delayed healing(愈合), the periosteum should be preserved as much as possible in operation.

slide51

①red bone marrow (红骨髓): developing blood cells of varied periods

②yellow bone marrow (黄骨髓): fat

bone marrow

骨髓

slide52

A puncture on iliac crest (or spinous process of lumbar vertebra, or sternum) to examine the marrow is a useful method to make a diagnosis of some blood diseases.

slide54

In some types of anemia(贫血), the death rate of the red cells is high, the yellow marrow reverts to red in an endeavor to support the birth rate.

slide55

(1)Intramembranous ossification (膜内成骨/膜化骨):

The ossification takes place in connective fibrous membrane without intervention of cartilage formation. Flat bones and many irregular bones are developed in this form.

slide56

anterior fontanelle 前囟

sphenoid fontanelle 蝶囟

posterior fontanelle 后囟

mastoid fontanelle乳突囟

新生儿头颅骨

slide57

posterior fontanelle 后囟

anterior fontanelle前囟

The skull of new-born baby

slide58

(2)Intracartilaginous (endochondral) ossification (软骨内成骨/软骨化骨) :

The ossification takes place in cartilage models. Long bones are formed in this form.

slide59

epiphysial cartilage骺软骨

secondary center次级骨化中心

primary center初级骨化中心

slide60

Most of the epiphyses become completely ossified during the 18th - 20th year, one or two years earlier in girls than in boys. The development of the skeleton is finished entirely in the 25th year.