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Chapter 10. Persuasion. Research Tradition. Carl Hovland Effects of persuasive messages on attitude change Moderating variables that act upon the persuasive process H. Hyman and P. Sheatsley

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chapter 10

Chapter 10

Persuasion

research tradition
Research Tradition
  • Carl Hovland
    • Effects of persuasive messages on attitude change
    • Moderating variables that act upon the persuasive process
  • H. Hyman and P. Sheatsley
    • Found that in order to be successful in changing attitudes, persuasive messages had to overcome certain psychological barriers
research tradition cont d
Research Tradition (Cont’d)
  • P. Lazarsfeld and his colleagues
    • Media messages serve primarily to reinforce existing attitudes rather than change them.
  • Recent research has shown that persuasion is a complicated process in which the receptivity of the receiver is important.
attitude
Attitude
  • The all-important mediator that stands between the acquisition of new persuasive information and subsequent behavioral change
theory of cognitive dissonance
Theory of Cognitive Dissonance
  • Attitude and action become inconsistent with one another
  • This inconsistency causes anxiety that must be resolved.
    • L. Festinger
persuasion models
Persuasion Models
  • McGuire’s Communication/ Persuasion Matrix Model
  • Cognitive Response Theory
  • The Elaboration Likelihood Model
mcguire s communication persuasion matrix model
McGuire’s Communication/ Persuasion Matrix Model
  • Explains persuasion effects by identifying inputs and outputs
  • Shortcomings:
    • Lack of detail regarding the process of yielding to a new attitude
    • Assumes that the input and output variables are sequential
cognitive response theory
Cognitive Response Theory
  • Attempts to amend the matrix model
  • An audience member yields to a new attitude depending upon cognitive responses to the message.
  • Problem:
    • In some cases persuasion occurs even though the audience member isn’t thinking about the content of a message.
the elaboration likelihood model
The Elaboration Likelihood Model
  • Explains the process of persuasion by identifying the likelihood of a person to elaborate cognitively
  • 2 distinct routes lead to persuasion:
    • Central
    • Peripheral
elm central route to persuasion
ELM: Central Route to Persuasion
  • Considerable cognitive effort for the audience member
  • Attitude changes resulting from the central route show common characteristics:
    • Accessibility
    • Persistence
    • Behavioral Predictability
    • Resistance to change
  • Leads to long-term attitude changes
elm peripheral route to persuasion
ELM: Peripheral Route to Persuasion
  • Does not involve considerable cognitive effort
  • May occur in many ways
    • Simple cues
    • Use of experts
    • Bandwagon effect
  • Leads to short-term attitude changes
elements that make persuasion effective
Elements That Make Persuasion Effective
  • Relevance to the audience
  • Using questions rather than assertions
  • Using several sources to support arguments
peripheral cue variables
“Peripheral Cue” Variables
  • The likeability or attractiveness of the message source
  • The credibility of the source
  • The number of arguments the message contained
  • The length of the arguments
  • The degree to which the position is supported by others
the role of variables
The Role of Variables
  • For persuasion to occur, three factors must be present:
    • Source
    • Message
    • Recipient
variables
Variables
  • Source factor variables:
    • Attractiveness of the source
    • Credibility
  • Message factor variables:
    • All informational items in a message
  • Recipient factor variables:
    • Person’s mood at the time the message is received
models that link attitudes and actions
Models That Link Attitudes and Actions
  • Reasoned action and planned behavior model
    • Two criteria decide whether people will act appropriately or not:
      • Their attitude toward the behavior
      • How others will view the behavior
  • Automatic activation model
    • Behavior follows automatically whenever an attitude comes to mind
recent research and future trends
Recent Research and Future Trends
  • Message-based persuasion and motives that produce attitude change or resistance
  • Gender differences and emotions and their influence in the persuasion process
  • Link between attitudes and persuasion
  • Variables involved in the persuasion process