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Identifying Function-Based Interventions. Chris Borgmeier PhD cborgmei@pdx.edu Sheldon Loman, PhD sheldon.loman@pdx.ed Portland State University. Activity 6: Function Based Interventions. Complete Pre-Test. Behavior Support Planning FBA  BSP.

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identifying function based interventions

Identifying Function-Based Interventions

Chris Borgmeier PhD

cborgmei@pdx.edu

Sheldon Loman, PhD

sheldon.loman@pdx.ed

Portland State University

behavior support planning fba bsp
Behavior Support Planning FBA BSP

The most important purpose of conducting FBA is to inform the development of comprehensive Behavior Support Plans that directly address the FUNCTION of student behavior

steps in behavior support planning
Steps in Behavior Support Planning

Step 1: Develop Competing Behavior Pathway

Step 2: Develop Behavior Support Plan

Step 3: Implementation Plan

Step 4: Evaluation Plan

Step 5: Follow-up Meetings to Review Progress

function based interventions1
Function-Based Interventions

Start with FBA results = Summary of Behavior

Summary of Behavior should include a detailed and specific description of:

Targeted Routine

Antecedents triggering behavior

Problem Behavior

Consequence/Outcome of Problem Behavior

Function of Behavior

analyzing the summary of behavior
Analyzing the Summary of Behavior
  • Read over the Summary of Behavior, but pay special attention to the Function identified for the problem behavior
    • The Function of Behavior will be central to identifying effective interventions to address:
      • Antecedent
      • Behaviors to Teach &
      • Consequences
start w summary of behavior from fba
Start w/ Summary of Behavior from FBA

Targeted Routine

Antecedent

Maintaining Consequence & Function

Problem Behavior

fba summary of behavior
FBA: Summary of Behavior

Targeted Routine

Maintaining Consequence & Function

Antecedent

Problem Behavior

FUNCTION

FUNCTION is where student behavior intersects with the environment

Function = Learning

Student learns…. When (A), if I (B), then (C)… Function = how I benefit so I keep doing B

competing behavior pathway1
Competing Behavior Pathway

Completed from FBA

so this is what we want
So this is what we want….

Desired Behavior

Natural Consequence

Targeted Routine

Antecedent

Maintaining Consequence & Function

Problem Behavior

Alternate Behavior

But… start with the Alternate Behavior? Why can’t we go right to the Desired Behavior?

why the alternate behavior why can t we go right to the desired behavior
Why the Alternate Behavior? Why can’t we go right to the Desired Behavior?

4. The student is going to need to gain the math skills before being able to do this like peers

3. Look how different this is from what’s happening now

1. This is what we’re asking the student to do.

Complete math problem

Success, another problem

Given double digit addn problems

Sent back to table (escape task)

None identified

Throws a Tantrum

2. This is what the student wants now.

Raise hand & ask for break

5. So… in the meantime we use the alternate behavior

desired behavior
Desired Behavior
  • Long-term goal = to follow regular classrooms routines and norms, as independently as possible (w/ supports reduced or eliminated) and looking as similar as possible to peers
  • Often requires a sustained, focused teaching effort to build missing skills
    • Academic deficits (often related to Avoiding difficult tasks)
      • Example: student avoids reading because 3 grade levels behind in reading… requires intensive reading instruction to close gap
    • Social Skills deficits (often related to seeking attention)
      • Example: student seeks negative attention due to isolation from peers and adults resulting from aggressive behavior and limited social skills… requires sustained, targeted social skill instruction generalized to natural context
    • Communication deficit
      • Example: student screams and rocks vigorously back and forth due to limited communication skills which might result in getting a snack… requires teaching communication skills (PECS, sign language, etc.)
    • Organizational/school skills deficits
      • Example: student doesn’t complete homework due to limited scheduling and organization strategies which might result in (a) task avoidance due to limited background knowledge or (b) avoiding negative interactions with teacher because homework is frequently not done… requires teaching school skills
function based interventions2
Function Based Interventions

When generating interventions we use Function to develop ideas to change A, B & C

Targeted Routine

Maintaining Consequence & Function

Antecedent

Problem Behavior

FUNCTION

Function should guide selection of alternative/ replacement behaviors

understanding alternate replacement behaviors
Understanding Alternate/ Replacement Behaviors

Alternate Behaviors are:

an immediate attempt to reduce disruption & potentially dangerous behavior in the classroom

Take some of the pressure off the teacher

designed to actively begin breaking the student’s habit of using problem behavior to meet their needs, by replacing it with a more acceptable alternate behavior

essential characteristics of a replacement alternate behavior
Essential Characteristics of a Replacement / Alternate Behavior

An appropriate Replacement Behavior:

Serves the same function as the problem behavior

Is easier to do and more efficient than the problem behavior

Alternate Behaviors require less physical effort & provide quicker, more reliable access to desired outcome/response than problem behavior

Is socially acceptable

which of the following are appropriate replacement behaviors
Which of the Following are Appropriate Replacement Behaviors?

Leslie is 12, has severe intellectual disabilities, does not use words, and hits her head. Head hitting is maintained by adult attention during work periods.

Which is the best Replacement Behavior

hide under her desk and be ignored

sign for “more” to another student

take completed work up to show the teacher

move to sit by another student

Use picture communication system to request teacher help

Start w/ the Function

1. Serve same Function? Does it provide adult attn?

2. Is Behavior easier to do than problem behavior?

3. Is Behavior socially acceptable?

which of the following are appropriate replacement behaviors1
Which of the Following are Appropriate Replacement Behaviors?

Jason is nine and cries when asked to do difficult tasks. The crying is maintained by avoiding or escaping difficult tasks.

Possible Replacement Behaviors:

More rewards for doing tasks

Asking for an easier task/ worksheet

Asking to play w/ his Gameboy

Requesting adult attention

Asking to have soda after tasks are done

Start w/ the Function

2. Is Behavior easier to do than problem behavior?

1. Serve same Function? Does it provide adult attn?

3. Is Behavior socially acceptable?

competing behavior pathway alternative behavior
Competing Behavior Pathway: Alternative Behavior

Example: Jason (from previous example)

Antecedent Problem Behavior Consequence

Asked to do difficult tasks

Avoid/Escape Difficult Task

Crying

Asking for an easier task/ worksheet

NOTE: This antecedent is not specific enough

identifying the alternate behavior
Identifying the Alternate Behavior

Yes or No?

Why?

What are the critical features of an Alternate Behavior?

1. Serve same Function? Does it provide adult attn?

2. Is Behavior easier to do than problem behavior?

3. Is Behavior socially acceptable?

activity 7
Activity 7
  • With a partner go through each of the Competing Behavior Pathway options in Pre-Test #2  Yes or No & Why
behavior support planning
Behavior Support Planning

Identify a range of interventions that address prevention (A), teaching (B) & consequences (C)

You may not use them all, but it is good to identify multiple interventions options across A, B & C

teaching b ehavior
Teaching Behavior

Teaching

Identify skill(s) to teach

Dual focus when teaching behavior

Alternate Behavior

Desired Behavior

ALWAYS START with the Alternative Behavior

-FIRST - Teach the alternate behavior you identified in Competing Behavior Pathway

-Teaching = Review & practice regularly

-THEN – teach the Desired Behavior

-this may be something to focus on immediately, or only after the student is fluent with the alternative behavior

teaching b ehavior1
Teaching Behavior

Don’t assume student already has Alternate Behavior in their skill set

  • Develop an observable definition of behavior
    • Identify examples & non-examples
  • Model/ Lead/ Test
  • Schedule Review & Practice of Skill/ Behavior Regularly
teaching behavior
Teaching Behavior

What are the critical features of Teaching Interventions?

1. First teach the Alternate Behavior

Yes or No?

Why?

  • Does Alt. Beh.:
  • Serve same Function?
  • Is it Easier?
  • Socially acceptable?
example teaching behavior
Example: Teaching Behavior

A B C Teach Dexter to raise his hand & ask for a break, instead of engaging in negative behavior.

*By teaching Dexter an easier alternate behavior to get what he wants, we’re making the problem behavior Inefficient.

Dexter will need frequent practice, precorrections, and prompts to help him get in the habit of using the alternate behavior

activity 8
Activity 8

With a partner go through each of the Teaching Behavior options in Pre-Test #2  Yes or No & Why

teaching interventions desired behavior
Teaching Interventions: Desired Behavior
  • Achieving the Desired Behavior most often requires a sustained, focused teaching effort to build missing skills
    • Academic deficits (often related to Avoiding difficult tasks)
      • Example: student avoids reading because 3 grade levels behind in reading… requires intensive reading instruction to close gap
    • Social Skills deficits (often related to seeking attention)
      • Example: student seeks negative attention due to isolation from peers and adults resulting from aggressive behavior and limited social skills… requires sustained, targeted social skill instruction generalized to natural context
    • Communication deficit
      • Example: student screams and rocks vigorously back and forth due to limited communication skills which might result in getting a snack… requires teaching communication skills (PECS, sign language, etc.)
    • Organizational/school skills deficits
      • Example: student doesn’t complete homework due to limited scheduling and organization strategies which might result in (a) task avoidance due to limited background knowledge or (b) avoiding negative interactions with teacher because homework is frequently not done… requires teaching school skills
slide33

What do we need to teach student to achieve the desired behavior?

2. Next, teach content required to support student to achieve the Desired Behavior

example teaching behavior1
Example: Teaching Behavior

A B C We also may want to provide additional instruction in multi-digit multiplication & division to help Dexter gain confidence in completing math problems independently

*By providing Dexter additional instruction in multi-digit multiplication & division, we can eventually make the problem behavior unnecessary.

function based interventions3
Function Based Interventions

When generating interventions we use Function to develop ideas to change A, B & C

Targeted Routine

Maintaining Consequence & Function

Antecedent

Problem Behavior

FUNCTION

Function should guide selection of prevention strategies

Function should guide selection of alternative/ replacement behaviors

a ntecedent interventions
Antecedent Interventions

Preventing Problem Behavior

Prevention- Change the trigger that sets off the problem behavior

Examine the Antecedent & Function of the Problem Behavior

Change the antecedent so student will no longer need to use problem behavior (make the problem behavior Irrelevant)

The best choices for Antecedent changes:

Directly address the identified antecedent

must address the function the problem behavior is serving

antecedent interventions directly address the identified antecedent
Antecedent Interventions Directly address the identified antecedent
  • Antecedent = Asked to read aloud in class
    • Potential options that more directly address the antecedent
      • Do not ask student to read aloud in class
      • Give student passage in advance to practice pre-reading
      • Let student read 1 sentence directions they are familiar with, instead of entire paragraphs from the text
    • Non-examples (do not directly address antecedent)
      • Move student closer to the teacher
      • Attend a counseling group about anger management
      • Check-in with teacher before reading group
  • Now, why is Function important?
antecedent interventions must the problem behavior serves address the function
Antecedent interventions must the problem behavior serves address the function
  • Antecedent = Asked to read aloud in class +
  • Function = Avoid any public presentation (not about reading difficulty; more related to social anxiety)
    • Does the Intervention address the Function of Behavior
      • Do not ask student to read aloud in class (or respond publicly)
      • Give student passage in advance to practice pre-reading
      • Let student read 1 sentence directions they are familiar with, instead of entire paragraphs from the text

Does the intervention address the function of behavior?

antecedent interventions1
Antecedent Interventions

Critical features of Antecedent Interventions to prevent the Problem Behavior?

  • Does the intervention directly address:
  • the antecedent?
  • the Function of the problem behavior?

Yes or No?

Why?

a ntecedent interventions1
Antecedent Interventions

A B  C Instead of giving Dexter the class math assignment of multi-digit multiplication & division problems, let’s give him an assignment he can be more successful with (e.g. 4 single digit mult/div problems for every 1 multi-digit problem)

*By changing A, we can PREVENT Dexter’s need to engage in negative behavior, making it Irrelevant

activity 9
Activity 9

With a partner go through each of the Antecedent Interventions options in Pre-Test #2  Yes or No & Why

function based interventions4
Function Based Interventions

When generating interventions we use Function to develop ideas to change A, B & C

Targeted Routine

Maintaining Consequence & Function

Antecedent

Problem Behavior

FUNCTION

Function should guide selection of consequences: (+) and (-)

Function should guide selection of prevention strategies

Function should guide selection of alternative/ replacement behaviors

c onsequence interventions reinforcing behavior
Consequence InterventionsReinforcing Behavior
  • Reinforcement should focus on 2 different sets of behaviors  Alternative Behavior & Desired Behavior
    • Reinforcing the Alternative Behavior
      • When the student engages in the alternative behavior, quickly provide the student with an outcome that matches the outcome/ function of the problem behavior
      • E.g. if student raises hand to request an easier, substitute assignment; in order to escape difficult tasks  then quickly provide the student with the easier assignment
c onsequence interventions reinforcing behavior1
Consequence InterventionsReinforcing Behavior
  • Reinforcing the Desired Behavior(s), or approximations of the desired behavior
    • The ultimate plan is to have the student move beyond the alternative behavior to using the desired behavior
    • Reinforcing this progression should start from the beginning of the intervention
c onsequence interventions reinforcing behavior2
Consequence InterventionsReinforcing Behavior
  • Considerations for Reinforcing Desired Behavior
    • The goals & expectations for desired behavior must be reasonable
      • Reasonable expectations of student behavior
        • EXAMPLE: on a daily basis the student is out of seat & off task the entire period & has not turned in any work the entire term
        • Probably NOT a Reasonable Expectation = student to be in seat the whole class period and turn in completed worksheets
        • More Reasonable approximations (Start Small & Build on Success):
          • Turns in assignments 50% completed
          • On task and trying to complete work for 15 minutes each period
c onsequence interventions reinforcing behavior3
Consequence InterventionsReinforcing Behavior
  • Considerations for Reinforcing Desired Behavior
    • The timeframe for goals & expectations for desired behavior must be reasonable
    • In the Beginning try to Reinforce Every occurrence or approximation
    • Reasonable timeframes for Reinforcement
      • Probably NOTReasonable Timeframes for reinforcement
        • If student turns in all worksheets for week 1, he will earn 15 min. in skate park on Friday
        • If student is in seat and on-task for the entire period, he will earn a candy bar
      • More Reasonable Timeframes for reinforcement
        • If student completes 5 problems, he can choose 3 problems to cross off the worksheet
        • If student is on task for 10 min., he will earn 4 min. of computer time
c onsequence interventions reinforcing behavior4
Consequence InterventionsReinforcing Behavior
  • Considerations for Reinforcing Desired Behavior
      • The reinforcer must be valued by the student
        • The function of behavior is a good place to start when identifying valued reinforcers
        • e.g. If the function of behavior is to Gain Peer Attention, the reinforcer should give access to Peer Attention
        • e.g. if the function of behavior is to Avoid Difficult Task the reinforcer could be a “Free Homework Pass”
consequence intervention reinforcing positive behavior
Consequence Intervention: Reinforcing Positive Behavior

Steps in Identifying Reinforcers?

Critical features of Reinforcers?

1. Identify an intervention to Reinforce the Alternate Behavior

  • Is reinforcer valued? (start w/ function of behavior)
  • b) Are expectations & timeframes reasonable for the student?

2. Identify an intervention to Reinforce the Desired Behavior

Yes or No?

Why?

c onsequence interventions responding to problem behavior
Consequence InterventionsResponding to Problem Behavior
  • Responding to Problem Behavior should focus on 2 things:
    • Redirecting to the Alternative Behavior
    • Active Extinction of the Problem Behavior
    • Redirecting to the Alternative Behavior
      • When the student engages in the alternative behavior, quickly provide the student with an outcome that matches the function of the problem behavior
        • This should also help to prevent escalation
      • E.g. if student raises hand to request an easier, substitute assignment; in order to escape difficult tasks then quickly provide the student with the easier assignment
c onsequence interventions responding to problem behavior1
Consequence InterventionsResponding to Problem Behavior
  • Active Extinction of the Problem Behavior
    • Make sure the problem behavior no longer works for the student… If using a consequence as a response to negative behavior, make sure the consequence is not providing the desired function for the student
consequence intervention responding to problem behavior
Consequence Intervention Responding to Problem Behavior

Steps in Identifying Responses to Problem Behavior?

Critical features of Responses to Problem Behavior?

Yes or No?

Why?

1. Prompt the Alternate Behavior at earliest signs of problem behavior

  • Make sure the response is not reinforcing the problem behavior

2. Identify a response to problem behavior that does not reinforce the Problem Behavior

example c onsequence interventions
Example: Consequence Interventions

A  B C We must refuse to (C) let Dexter avoid difficult math tasks by (B) engaging in disrespectful behavior & Instead prompt him to raise his hand and (C) reward him for (B) raising his hand & asking for a break (Alternate Behvior)

*By not providing Dexter w/ what he wants when he engages in disrespectful behavior we are making the problem behavior Ineffective.

It is important that we work hard to Reinforce Dexter for engaging in the alternate behavior, or he is likely to go back to & escalate the problem behavior

activity 10
Activity 10

With a partner go through each of the Consequence Interventions options in Pre-Test #2  Yes or No & Why

activity 11
Activity 11
  • Complete Post-test
who should attend fba meetings
Who should attend FBA meetings?
  • Behavior Specialist (often School Psych or SpEd)
  • Principal
  • Teachers who work with student
    • Both Gen Ed & SpEd
  • Other staff who work closely with the student
  • Parent
  • Student (if old enough – team decision)

An FBA meeting for an IEP student is an IEP meeting, so all required attendees must be present

embedding function based support into school teams leah benazzi 2005
Embedding Function-Based Support into School Teams – Leah Benazzi, 2005
  • Participants
    • School-based teams
    • Behavior specialists with knowledge of behavior theory
  • Participants developed behavior support plans (BSPs) based on description of students
    • Teams without a behavior specialist
    • Behavior specialist without the team
    • Teams and the behavior specialist together
  • All BSPs were evaluated for technical adequacy and contextual fit
results
Results
  • BSPs developed by behavior specialists alone, rated low on contextual fit
  • BSPs developed by teams alone, rated low on technical adequacy
  • Only BSPs developed by the team working with a behavior specialist rated high on both technical adequacy and contextual fit.
fba process meetings
Day 1 

Next 2 wks

Day 14 

Next 2 wks

Day 28 

Ongoing 

Initial FBA meeting

Team disburses and gathers functional assessment data

FBA/BSP meeting - team reconvenes to review assessment information & develop behavior plan

Team implements behavior plan & collects data

Behavior Plan Review - Team reconvenes to look at data to Review effectiveness and implementation of behavior plan

Continue to implement behavior plan or changes as needed

Review Meeting - Reconvene as needed depending on success of behavior plan

FBA Process -- Meetings
supports that enable accurate durable implementation of interventions
Supports that enable accurate & durable implementation of interventions
  • Ensure contextual fit
  • Organize adult responsibilities, tasks, etc.
  • Embed interventions in IEP
  • Establish effective, efficient, & relevant school-wide behavior support systems
support plan design
Support Plan Design
  • Ensure Contextual Fit
    • Implementers involved in design of plan
    • Plan consistent with values of implementers
    • Plan consistent with skills of implementers
    • Plan consistent with resources of implementers
    • Plan consistent with administrative structure
    • Plan perceived as (a) likely to be effective and (b) in the best interest of the focus individual
implementation
Implementation
  • Implementation Plan (Who will do what, when?)
    • Schedule prep activities (e.g. communication system development)
    • Schedule teaching times/curriculum
    • Schedule data system design/use
    • Schedule on-going times for assessment
preparing staff for implementation
Preparing Staff for Implementation
  • Who is implementing each part of the intervention?
  • How do staff implement it? (Requires specific instruction & modeling)
  • When should it be implemented?
  • What if it’s not working (Back-up/crisis plans)?
  • Why should this work?
  • When will we meet again to review the plan and implementation?
bsp review meeting
BSP Review Meeting
  • Make sure to review each step on implementation plan at Follow-up BSP meeting
    • Problem Solve around treatment fidelity
    • If we’re not implementing the plan with fidelity, we cannot evaluate if the plan is successful or not
slide74

5

8

intervention cases treatment fidelity

Intervention Cases Treatment Fidelity

Noell et al, 1997

Jones et al, 1997

Codding et al, 2005

jones wickstrom friman 1997
Jones, Wickstrom,& Friman (1997).
  • School-based behavioral consultation is “a good talk spoiled”
  • Typical interaction:
    • consultant and teacher discussing a student’s inappropriate behavior, which can be very rewarding
    • Often, however, the student problem behavior is attributed to the “inappropriate” behavior of the teacher, and the consultant recommends a “new” response instead.
    • Often this new response requires greater effort than ignoring the consultant’s suggestions.
slide77
Mean Levels of Treatment Integrity(% of 2 min. intervals w/ pos. consequence issued by teacher, contingent on student on-task behavior)
results discussion
Results/ Discussion
  • Simply asking a teacher to implement consequences may result in inadequate level of integrity
  • Even w/ daily performance feedback – overall mean of treatement integrity did not exceed 83% for any of the teachers
  • Study makes salient the difficult nature of assisting teachers in the delivery of treatments w/ a high level of integrity
codding et al 2005
Codding et al. (2005)
  • “We suspect that periodic collection of treatment integrity data and subsequent performance feedback are necessary for high rates of intervention integrity to persist.”
beyond talking feedback
Beyond Talking -- Feedback
  • Make sure to train staff how to implement
    • Modeling/Role Playing the intervention is best method of instruction
      • People won’t implement it if they don’t understand how to do it, or if it’s not working because they doing the intervention incorrectly
  • Frequent follow-up & check-in
    • Linking w/ permanent product to turn in can be helpful
      • Example – point sheet w/ regular interval ratings (way of tracking teacher feedback to student)
      • Example – daily Intervention checklist for teacher to self check implementation of plan
      • Email check-ins/reminders paired with periodic visits/observations are good
evaluation plan1
Evaluation Plan

Plan Review Date 5/31/05

identifying prioritizing outcomes
Identifying & Prioritizing Outcomes
  • What is most important to the referring teacher?
  • Define desired improvements
  • If the student increases/decreases this behavior you will feel like:
    • your life is better
    • the student is improving
  • What is most important for the benefit of the student?
develop an evaluation plan
Develop an Evaluation Plan
  • Specify short term goal
    • Focus on use of alternative behavior & reductions in problem behavior
    • Short term goals will continuously be revised in working toward the long-term goal
  • Specify long term goals
    • Focus on desired behavior & reductions in identified problem behavior
  • Specify evaluation procedures
    • Point cards can be a good way to track progress
    • Other alternatives – scatterplot, teacher grading records, attendance, referrals
  • Plan review date (within 2 weeks) to evaluate the effectiveness of plan
competing behavior summary
Competing Behavior Summary

Desired Behavior

Typical Consequence

Summary of Behavior

Setting Event

Antecedent

Problem Behavior

Maintaining Consequence

Alternate Behavior

competing behavior pathway4
Competing Behavior Pathway
  • Guide for Evaluation Plan
  • Identify
    • Short term goals and intervention
      • Alternate Behavior
    • Long-term goals and intervention
      • Desired Behavior
  • Set Reasonable Goals:
    • Behavior Change is a Process requiring Breaking Habits and Learning new skills
start with the short term goals

Start with the Short Term Goals

Increasing the Alternate Behavior & Decreasing Problem Behavior

use competing pathway to identify outcome measures
Use Competing Pathway to Identify Outcome Measures

Desired Behavior

Typical Consequence

Summary of Behavior

Setting Event

Antecedent

Problem Behavior

Maintaining Consequence

Alternate Behavior

  • Immediate Short Term Goals
  • Reduce Problem Behavior
  • Increase use of Alt. Behavior
why the alternate behavior why can t we go right to the desired behavior1
Why the Alternate Behavior? Why can’t we go right to the Desired Behavior?

4. The student is going to need to gain the math skills before being able to do this like peers

3. Look how different this is from what’s happening now

1. This is what we’re asking the student to do.

Complete math problem

Success, another problem

Given double digit addn problems

Sent back to table (escape task)

None identified

Throws a Tantrum

2. This is what the student wants now.

Raise hand & ask for break

5. So… in the meantime we use the alternate behavior

desired behavior1
Desired Behavior
  • Long-term goal = to follow regular classrooms routines and norms, as independently as possible (w/ supports reduced or eliminated) and looking as similar as possible to peers
teaching interventions desired behavior1
Teaching Interventions: Desired Behavior
  • Achieving the Desired Behavior most often requires a sustained, focused teaching effort to build missing skills
    • Academic deficits (often related to Avoiding difficult tasks)
      • Example: student avoids reading because 3 grade levels behind in reading… requires intensive reading instruction to close gap
    • Social Skills deficits (often related to seeking attention)
      • Example: student seeks negative attention due to isolation from peers and adults resulting from aggressive behavior and limited social skills… requires sustained, targeted social skill instruction generalized to natural context
    • Communication deficit
      • Example: student screams and rocks vigorously back and forth due to limited communication skills which might result in getting a snack… requires teaching communication skills (PECS, sign language, etc.)
    • Organizational/school skills deficits
      • Example: student doesn’t complete homework due to limited scheduling and organization strategies which might result in (a) task avoidance due to limited background knowledge or (b) avoiding negative interactions with teacher because homework is frequently not done… requires teaching school skills
slide95

What do we need to teach student to achieve the desired behavior?

2. Next, teach content required to support student to achieve the Desired Behavior

example teaching behavior2
Example: Teaching Behavior

A B C We also may want to provide additional instruction in multi-digit multiplication & division to help Dexter gain confidence in completing math problems independently

*By providing Dexter additional instruction in multi-digit multiplication & division, we can eventually make the problem behavior unnecessary.

so back to a short term goal
So… back to a short term goal
  • Develop a goal to review in 2 weeks at initial follow-up meeting
  • Focus on:
    • Reducing problem behavior
    • Increasing use of alternate behavior
  • How can we measure this in a feasible, but effective way?
short term goal
Short term Goal
  • Reduce frequency of problem behavior
  • Increase use of alternative/replacement behavior
  • How do we measure this?
    • Depends on the frequency & type of problem behavior
identifying an appropriate way to measure
Identifying an Appropriate way to Measure
  • Must measure specific targeted/ prioritized behavior

(Fighting, disruption, off task, attendance, work completed, etc.)

    • Best way to measure (Objective v. Subjective)
      • Frequency
      • Duration
      • Subjective rating (point card)
  • Balancing Accuracy & Feasibility of Data Collection
    • Measure must be a feasible form of data collection for teachers/staff
      • What is the baseline?
use existing data forms when possible
Use Existing Data Forms when possible

Try to be consistent with point card forms that might be in use for Check-In/Check-Out programs if possible

using point cards
Using Point Cards
  • Point cards are an easy way to track progress with a behavioral plan
  • Good for helping students learn to monitor their own behavior
  • Easily linked with Reinforcement Program
  • Flexible & feasible for teachers
identify a short term goal data collection plan format
Identify a Short-term Goal & Data Collection Plan & Format
  • Short-term Goal -- Where to start:
      • Reduction in Problem Behavior
      • Increase in Alternate Behavior
  • Do we have any baseline data?
identify a short term goal data collection plan format1
Identify a Short-term Goal & Data Collection Plan & Format
  • Short-term Goal -- Where to start:
  • Do we have any baseline data?
        • Point cards?
        • Discipline referral?
        • Teacher estimates of frequency/duration
        • Use data/estimates to set a reasonable goal
identify a short term goal data collection plan format2
Identify a Short-term Goal & Data Collection Plan & Format
  • Short-term Goal -- Where to start:
  • Use data/estimates to set a reasonable goal
        • Set initial goals that the student is able to achieve (early success)
        • Link incentives to data & reasonable student progress (so goals must be reasonable)
questions for evaluation plan
Questions for Evaluation Plan
  • Does your evaluation plan focus on the prioritized behaviors of concern?
    • Reduction in problem behavior
    • Increased use of alternate and desired behaviors?
  • If the student meets the goal, will there be a noticeable difference in student behavior?
  • Is the evaluation plan clearly linked with the reinforcement program?
  • Is data collection feasible?
use competing pathway to identify outcome measures1
Use Competing Pathway to Identify Outcome Measures

Adjust Goals Over Time… as Student exhibits success

Longer Term Goals

Desired Behavior

Typical Consequence

Summary of Behavior

Setting Event

Antecedent

Problem Behavior

Maintaining Consequence

Alternate Behavior

  • Immediate Short Term Goals
  • Reduce Problem Behavior
  • Increase use of Alt. Behavior
desired behavior2
Desired Behavior
  • Long-term goal - to function independently and follow normal classroom expectations
  • Likely to require intensive intervention that gradually removes support until student responds to classroom expectations without extra support
c onsequence interventions measuring behavior
Consequence InterventionsMeasuring Behavior

Transition to Measuring the Desired Behavior(s), or approximations of the desired behavior

  • The ultimate plan is to have the student move beyond the alternative behavior to using the desired behavior
linking measurement plans reinforcement plans
Linking Measurement Plans & Reinforcement Plans
  • Considerations for Reinforcing Desired Behavior
    • The goals & expectations for desired behavior must be reasonable
      • Reasonable expectations of student behavior
        • EXAMPLE: on a daily basis the student is out of seat & off task the entire period & has not turned in any work the entire term
        • Probably NOT a Reasonable Expectation = student to be in seat the whole class period and turn in completed worksheets
        • More Reasonable approximations:
          • Turns in assignments 50% completed
          • On task and trying to complete work 15 for 15 minutes each period
linking measurement plans reinforcement plans1
Linking Measurement Plans & Reinforcement Plans
  • Considerations for Reinforcing Desired Behavior
    • The timeframe for goals & expectations for desired behavior must be reasonable
    • Reasonable timeframes for Reinforcement
      • Probably NOT Reasonable Timeframes for reinforcement
        • If student turns in all worksheets for week 1, he will earn 15 min. in skate park on Friday
        • If student is in seat and on-task for the entire period, he will earn a candy bar
      • More Reasonable Timeframes for reinforcement
        • If student completes 5 problems, he can choose 3 problems to cross off the worksheet
        • If student is on task for 10 min., he will earn 4 min. of computer time
adjusting goals while modifying supports
Adjusting Goals while Modifying Supports
  • Increased Self Monitoring
  • Fading Antecedent supports
  • Fading/Refocusing Reinforcers
    • Decreasing frequency
    • Increased connection w/ natural reinforcers
    • Changing focus of goals & reinforcers from reducing problem behavior to increasing desired behavior