Circulatory System of a Mammal. The Blood System. The general pattern of blood circulation in a mammal. Names are required only of the coronary arteries and of blood vessels entering and leaving the heart, liver and kidneys.
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Blood passes through heart ONCE per complete circuit
Blood pressure reduced as blood passes through the gill capillaries - slows down flow to the rest of the body
Limits the rate of delivery of O2 and nutrients to cells and removal of waste
Efficient for the level of activity of fish but not mammals – also fish do not maintain their body temperature – need to respire relatively less compared to mammals
Double Circulation – more efficient - e.g. mammals
Heart is composed of two separate pumps – right side pumps blood to the lungs to pick up oxygen; the blood is returned to the left side; the left side pumps oxygenated blood rapidly and at high pressure to the body; the blood is returned to the right side
Higher level of activity (energy) and need to maintain their
body temperature at 370C – through respiration
Need to deliver and remove materials to and from cells rapidly – achieved by delivering blood at high pressure to tissues.
Pulmonary – oxygenates blood & removes CO2
Systemic – oxygenated blood from lungs pumped
rapidly at an increased pressure by the heart
Blood passes through heart TWICEper complete circuit
Name the blood vessel in each of the following descriptions:
Capillary – endothelium – large number – large surface area for exchange
Wall - one cell thick – short diffusion distance
Endothelium is continuous throughout circulatory system
Narrow lumen; High pressure
Highly elastic – expand and recoil
Thick muscular wall – to withstand force; more elastic fibres (recoil)
No valves (except aortic and pulmonary semilunar at the start)
Oxygenated blood from heart – except pulmonary artery to lungs
Pulsatile blood flow (expansion + recoil)
Pulse can be felt – e.g. wrist
Wide lumen; Low pressure
Thin wall - less elastic and less muscular
Valves (semilunar) – prevent backflow
Deoxygenated blood to heart from tissues - except pulmonary vein from lungs
Non pulsatile – smooth flow of blood
It is the fluid which allows the exchange of substances between the blood and cells
glucose, amino acids, fatty acids, salts and oxygen = all delivered to the cells.
carbon dioxide and other waste substances = removed from the cells.