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Reframing Organizations , 4 th ed. Chapter 8. Interpersonal and Group Dynamics. Interpersonal and Group Dynamics. Interpersonal Dynamics Emotional Intelligence Management Styles Group & Teams in Organizations. Interpersonal Dynamics. Managers spend much of their time in relationships

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chapter 8

Chapter 8

Interpersonal and Group Dynamics

interpersonal and group dynamics
Interpersonal and Group Dynamics
  • Interpersonal Dynamics
  • Emotional Intelligence
  • Management Styles
  • Group & Teams in Organizations
interpersonal dynamics
Interpersonal Dynamics
  • Managers spend much of their time in relationships
  • Three recurrent questions regularly haunt managers:
    • What is really happening in this relationship?
    • Why do other people behave as they do?
    • What can I do about it?
interpersonal dynamics ii
Interpersonal Dynamics (II)
  • Argyris and Schön’s theories for action
    • Espoused theory: how individuals describe, explain, or predict their own behavior
    • Theory-in-use: the program that governs an individual’s actions
interpersonal dynamics iii
Interpersonal Dynamics (III)
  • Argyris and Schön’s theories for action
    • Model I Theory in use
    • Model I Assumptions
      • Problem is caused by others
      • Unilateral diagnosis
      • Get person to change
    • Model II Assumptions
      • Emphasize common goals
      • Communicate openly
      • Combine advocacy with inquiry
    • The Perils of Self-Protection
model i assumptions
Model I Assumptions
  • Problems are caused by the other person
  • Since they caused the problem, get them to change
  • If they refuse or defend, that proves they caused the problem
  • If they resist, intensify the pressure, protect them (to avoid discomfort), or reject them
  • If you don’t succeed, it’s their fault; you’re not responsible
model ii assumptions
Model II Assumptions
  • Focus on common goals, mutual influence
  • Communicate openly, test beliefs publicly
  • Combine advocacy with inquiry
advocacy inquiry
Advocacy & Inquiry

Figure 8-1: Advocacy and Inquiry.



emotional intelligence
Emotional Intelligence
  • Emotional Intelligence: awareness of self and others, able to deal with emotions and relationships (Salovey and Mayer)
  • A Management Best-seller: Daniel Goleman’s Emotional Intelligence
    • EI more important than IQ to managerial success
    • Individuals with low EI and high IQ are dangerous in the workplace
management styles
Management Styles
  • Lewin, Lippitt and White: autocratic, democratic and laissez-faire leadership
  • Fleishman and Harris: initiating structure vs. consideration of others
  • Myers-Briggs Inventory
    • Introversion vs. extraversion
    • Sensing vs. intuition
    • Thinking vs. feeling
    • Judging vs. perceiving
management styles ii
Management Styles (II)
  • “Big 5 Model”
    • Extraversion (enjoying other people and seeking them out)
    • Agreeableness (getting along with others)
    • Conscientiousness (orderly, planful, hard-working)
    • Neuroticism (difficulty controlling negative feelings)
    • Openness to experience (preference for novelty and creativity)
groups and teams in organizations
Groups and Teams in Organizations
  • Informal Roles
  • Informal Group Norms
  • Interpersonal Conflict in Groups
  • Leadership and Decision-Making in Groups
informal roles
Informal roles
  • Informal role: an unwritten, often unspoken expectation about how a particular individual will behave in the group
  • Individuals prefer different roles: some prefer to be active and in control, others prefer to stay in the background
  • Individuals who can’t find a comfortable role may withdraw or become troublemakers
  • Individuals may compete over the same role (for example, two people who both want to run things), hindering group effectiveness
informal group norms
Informal group norms
  • Informal norm: unwritten rule about what individuals have to do to be members in good standing
  • Norms need to align with both the task and the preferences of group members
  • Norms often develop unconsciously; groups often do better to discuss explicitly how they want to operate
handling interpersonal conflict in groups
Handling Interpersonal Conflict in Groups
  • Develop skills
  • Agree on basics
  • Search for interests in common
  • Experiment
  • Doubt your infallibility
  • Treat conflict as a group responsibility
leadership and decision making in groups
Leadership and Decision-making in Groups
  • How will we steer the group
  • Leadership in the essential, but may be shared and fluid
  • Leaders who overcontrol or understructure produce frustration, ineffectiveness
  • Employees bring social and personal needs to the workplace
  • Individuals’ social skills or competencies are a critical element
  • Though often frustrating, groups can be both satisfying and efficient