Mark Bergmeier, State of Iowa Larry Kinney Synergistic Building Technologies Synertech Systems Corp Sunflower Corp Covering Your Bases — Refrigerator, Lighting, and Hot Water Base-Load Measures
Session objectives • Learn how to meter refrigerators; • Use a database to determine energy use of existing refrigerators; • Assess potential lighting measures; • Explore modern CFL improvements; and • Understand reduced hot water usage and assess suspect plumbing.
Delivery of much-needed services Virtually sure thing conservation >1 SIR Helps avoid new power plants (lowers demand) Excellent economic development Mastery of new skills akin to WX Professionalization of the work force Enhances relations with utilities and landlords Environmentally sound recycling Benefits of Adding the Refrigerator Replacement Arrow to Weatherization’s Quiver
Refrigerator / Freezer Replacement State of Iowa By Mark Bergmeier
Refrigerator / Freezer Replacement Meter All Refrigerator and Freezers
Refrigerator 2006 Removed 26 Replaced 1244 Cost $38.00 With savings 1021 KWH Cost $683.00 With savings 869 KWH
Refrigerator Replacement Removal $.09 x 1021 = 91.89 Replacement $.09x869=78.21 Simple payback 38/91.89 = .4 Simple payback 683/78.21 = 8.7
Removed 22 Replaced 470 Cost $30.00 With savings 713 KWH Cost $460.00 With savings 662 KWH Freezer 2006
Freezer Replacement Removal $.09 x 713 = 64.17 Replacement $.09 x 662 = 59.58 Simple payback 30/64.17 = .46 Simple payback 460/59.58 = 7.7
Purchasing Agency will contact their local appliance vendors. Vendors need to submit a price quoted for a specified period of time. Vendor Agreement
Appliance Data Sheet Agencies will have participating vendors complete an Iowa Weatherization Program Refrigeration Appliance Data Sheet The form will be completed for each brand/model of appliance for which the vendor is providing a price quote. The form specifies the style of the appliance, the features of the appliance, the size of the appliance, etc.
Baseload Appliance Rating Tool (BART) Is an ACCESS-based software program. Used to calculate replacement ratings of the appliances for which the agency received price quotes. The replacement rating is a numerical rating that is applied to the replacement (new) appliances
Baseload Appliance Rating Tool (BART) The rating considers the energy consumption (kWh) of the appliance, the cost of the appliance the cost of the electricity, the lifetime of the appliance. A listing will be printed of the appliances and their ratings. This list will be used by the field personnel in the field
Baseload Appliance Rating Tool (BART) The rating is compared to the annual consumption of the existing (old) appliance(s) to determine whether it is cost effective to replace the existing appliance(s) with the new appliance.
Appliance Metering If the evaluator doesn’t have enough meters to meter all of the appliances in the home, the oldest ones should be metered.
Conversion Table The field person can determine what the annual consumption of the appliance is by finding the short-term kWh reading on the table that corresponds to the logger reading and then following a line over to the column that contains the time (in minutes) that the appliance was metered. The number at the intersection of the short-term consumption line and the time column is the annual consumption in kWh.
Replacement Criteria The client has two appliances. The two units were metered for 2 hours, and showed consumption of 0.252 and 0.180. We extrapolate these values to annual consumption rates using the Conversion Table and find the rates of 1,104 kWh and 788 kWh, respectively. The total annual energy consumption of these two units is 1,892 (1,104 + 788).
Installation Frequencies and AverageEnergy Savings (maximum SIR) Measures that result in the greatest electric savings (in order) High-efficiency water heaters (Electric water heater replacement) (6) Refrigerator removal (1) Standard-efficiency water heaters (Electric water heater replacement) (3) Refrigerator replacement (4) Freezer removal (2) Freezer replacement (5) Compact fluorescent lighting (3)
Top Ten Measures in CY 06First-Year Client Bill Savings and Installation Rates • Hi-Eff Heating Sys Replacement $181 46% • Wall Insulation $156 66% • Std-Eff Heating Sys Replacement $128 11% • Refrigerator Removal $99 1% • Refrigerator Exchange $87 44% • Freezer Removal $74 1% • Ceiling Insulation $68 86% • Freezer Exchange $67 17% • Foundation/Crawlspace Insulation $57 40% • Hi-Eff WH Replacement $46 19% NOTE: Omitted other Heating Sys Repl due to very few installations even though they had relatively high savings
Test chamber and data loggers This chamber can test four refrigerators at a time, monitoring up to 11 streams of data from each. Keeping constant temperatures with refrigerator doors shut makes it possible to study specific elements of performance while keeping other factors constant. That allows the effects of control settings or ambient temperatures to be quantified precisely.
80 Ambient temperature 70 60 50 Fresh food temperature 40 Temperature (°F) 30 20 10 Freezer temperature 0 -10 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 Time (15-minute intervals) Effect of defrost cycle on fresh food and freezer compartment temperatures
90° 80° 70° 700 600 500 400 kWh/yr 300 200 100 0 High Midpoint Control settings Low Energy consumption vs. ambient temp and control setting for a 15-ft3 Maytag Average temperatures at each control setting (°F) Compartments High Midpoint Low Fresh food 36.4 38.8 43.9 Freezer –9.1 1.6 12.4
Savings-to-Investment Ratio (SIR) • The ratio of dollars saved to dollars invested to achieve the savings. • SIRs >1 are cost-effective. • It’s a convenient way to express the cost-effectiveness of both the program and particular measures. • Computed by multiplying annual savings times the lifetime of the measure, times a discount factor versus costs. • Use 20 years and 4.8% discount factor.
Average consumption before and after replacement for three pilot refrigerator programs
SIR dependence on initial kWh 4.65, 2.60, 1.82 • Picking the high users takes time, but it pays benefits. • SIRs descend with initial consumption, in spite of better new units and lower costs. • Critical question: How to be selective but save time?
Energy costs and replacement costs to achieve unity SIR $0.14/kWh 800 $0.12/kWh 700 $0.16/kWh $0.10/kWh 600 500 400 Cost for replacement (in dollars) 300 200 100 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 Minimum energy use (kWh/yr) Source: Synertech Systems Corp. 
One option for marrying utility with DOE funding when replacement thresholds differAssumptions: Utility avoided cost is $0.06/kWh; Retail electricity cost is $0.10/kWh;New refrigerator consumes 386 kWh/yr; Cost of new refrigerator + recycling old unit + overhead = $550
Unity SIR for a utility’s residential customers = 855 kWh/yr • If replacements cost utility $375 each, at 6.4 cents/kWh, it’s cost effective to replace all units that consume > 855/kWh/yr, 98 W/hr. • Assumes new unit uses 386 kWh/yr, lasts 20 years, and discount factor = 4.7%. • Also assumes energy costs exactly track inflation. • If energy prices outstrip inflation, cost effectiveness of replacement increases.
Making decisions on replacement • Once lower-threshold for annual kWh consumption is decided, how will specific cases be estimated? • If trying to make a “go/no go” decision, in most cases it’s as easy as looking in the AHAM manual for DOE test results; you should apply a factor for age (1.2 routinely used). • Replace all of the really old ones? • How about those that are green or gold; have R-12 refrigerant? • Measure if no AHAM match or if a close call.
Electric energy meter by Kill a Watt • The best and the least expensive • Tracks kWh, voltage, current, power factor, peak demand, time since reset. • Available for <$17. • New model which does the math, keeps data in memory for $34. • Kill A Watt (P3-P4400) www.teledynamics.com 800-847-5629
Testing procedure • Plug in the watt-hour meter, then plug the fridge into the meter. • Try not to interrupt a compressor run cycle. In all events, move fast! • Check time at beginning of run and at end. Test for at least 2 hours—more if possible. Record accumulated kWh. • Look out for defrost periods (watts >380).
Computations • Annual kWh = Test kWh * 8,766 Test time (hours) • Express time as a decimal (divide minutes by 60). • Multiply results by 1.08 if no defrost heater runs during test (for frost-free units only). If defrost heater runs, test for >24 hours and make no correction for defrost run. • Make correction for temp if appropriate.
Defrost cycles obscure the truth! 250 200 15-Minute Demand (W) 150 FreezerTemperature Fresh food compartment temperature Temperature (degrees F); watts 100 50 0 Time (15-minute intervals)
Why test for several hours with frost free units? • One-hour tests are usually insufficient to draw useful inferences, as they are within 10% of an accurate estimate only 18 times out of 100. Three-hour tests are within 10% of an accurate estimate 90 times out of 100. (See Home Energy, September 2000) • This judgement is based on many thousands of data points in the test chamber and careful analysis.
Temperature compensation • The difference in temperature between ambient temp. and the temp. inside a fridge affects performance by 2.5% per degree F. • If tested in a cooler-than-estimated annual temp. environment, add correction. • Otherwise, subtract correction. • If it’s a close call, don’t bother. • Example: Tested at 68˚F, estimated kitchen temp. average = 72, and multiply measured results by 1.1.
Check out the power line to help avoid electrical fires! • Sure Test stresses the line, can find weaknesses in circuits. • Useful for all plugs, not just the plug for the fridge. • Use before and after insulation in attics and walls.
Footcandle • The illuminance on a surface one square foot in area on which there is a uniformly distributed flux of one lumen. • The lumens incident on a surface = footcandles x the area in square feet.
Luminous efficacy and the sun • When applied to electric lighting, it refers to the amount of light produced per watt of electric energy required to produce it. • Since the watts of electric energy are directly dissipated inside a building’s envelope or are indirectly dissipated after light is absorbed, they also contribute to a building’s cooling load. • In the case of the sun (113+ lm/W), luminous efficacy refers only to the ratio of the light produced to the heating effect within the building envelope.
CFLs • Produce over four times more light per unit of electrical energy than do incandescents • Produce four times less heat per unit of light than do incandescents. • Have much lower surface temperatures, so are safer • Lower air conditioning bills • Produce beautiful, hum-free light whose color properties are excellent.
High-quality, long-lasting light four more energy efficient than incandescent
Characteristics of Autocell’s CFLs • They are Energy Star rated • They have a lifetime of 12,000 hours • They use the least mercury of any CFLs • They are inexpensive, particularly in bulk • The company will do special art on the boxes and fixtures themselves if buying in bulk • (“This energy-efficiency CFL is brought to you by the folks that weatherize your home!”)
Ceiling fixture • Can cover “can” lights; providing better, diffuse light and allows the cans to be air sealed and insulated • Includes hard wired CFL, electronic ballast • Saves electricity and gas!