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Exam W 10/28. Review T 10/27 1 pm SL 150. Happy Mole Day!. Precipitation. Solubility. Soluble = ability to dissolve in a liquid Insoluble = inability to dissolve in a liquid Not all Ionic Compounds are water soluble Not all molecular compounds are insoluble!.

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exam w 10 28

Exam W 10/28

Review T 10/27 1 pm SL 150

  • Soluble = ability to dissolve in a liquid
  • Insoluble = inability to dissolve in a liquid
  • Not all Ionic Compounds are water soluble
  • Not all molecular compounds are insoluble!
song for solubility
Song For Solubility!!

(Taken from Cornell University – Adapted by Daley – Sing to Rhythm of 99 Bottles) 

Potassium, sodium, and ammonium salts,  Whatever they may be, Can always be depended on For solubility. Asked about the nitrates or acetates The answer is always clear, They each and all are soluble, Is all we want to hear. 

Most every chloride's soluble At least we've always read Save silver, mercurous mercury And (slightly) chloride of lead.

Take the Bromide and iodide salts There soluble as can be Save silver, mercury, and lead That precipitate as you see

Every single sulfate

Is soluble ,  'Tis said

'Cept barium and strontium And calcium and lead. 

Hydroxides of metals won't dissolve That is, all but three Potassium, sodium and ammonium Dissolve quite readily.

And then you must remember That you must not "forgit" Calcium, barium, strontium Dissolve a little bit. 

The carbonates are insoluble,  It's lucky that it's so, Or else, our marble buildings Would melt away like snow. 

(Repeat with feeling) 

Only note is that all Lithium salts are

Soluble too!!!

reactions involving ions molecular vs ionic equations
Reactions Involving Ions:Molecular vs. Ionic Equations
  • Chemical Reaction can be expressed by:
    • Molecular Equation (balanced chemical equation)
    • Complete Ionic Equation (showing all ions in reaction)
    • Net Ionic Equation (showing only those ions directly involved in reaction)
  • Consider

Copper (III) sulfate reacts with sodium hydroxide to form copper (III) hydroxide and sodium sulfate (all in water).

  • Express reaction in molecular, complete ionic,
  • and net ionic equations

Predicting Whether a Precipitation Reaction

Occurs; Writing Equations:

a) Calcium Nitrate and Sodium Sulfate solutions are added together.

Molecular Equation

Ca(NO3)2 (aq) + Na2SO4 (aq) CaSO4 (s) + 2NaNO3 (aq)

Total Ionic Equation

Ca2+(aq)+2 NO3-(aq) + 2 Na+(aq)+ SO4-2(aq) CaSO4 (s) + 2 Na+(aq+) 2 NO3-(aq)

Net Ionic Equation

Ca2+(aq) + SO-2(aq) CaSO4 (s)

Spectator Ions are Na+ and NO3-

b) Ammonium Sulfate and Magnesium Chloride are added together.

In exchanging ions, no precipitates will be formed, so there will be no

chemical reactions occurring! All ions are spectator ions!

figure 4 6 reaction of magnesium chloride and silver nitrate photo courtesy of american color
Figure 4.6: Reaction of magnesium chloride and silver nitrate. Photo courtesy of American Color.

Write molecular

and ionic equations

for this reaction.

Ionic equation: Ag+(aq) + Cl-(aq) AgCl(s)

oxidation reduction

2Na (s) + Cl2(g) 2NaCl(s)

Oxidation numbers

figure 4 10 the copper metal plates out on the nail photo courtesy of american color
Figure 4.10: The copper metal plates out on the nail.Photo courtesy of American Color.

Write a net ionic equation for this reaction!

Cu+2(aq) + Fe(s) Cu(s) + Fe+2(aq)

definition of acid base
Definition of Acid & Base
  • Arrhenius
    • Acid: substance that produces H+ ions
    • Base: substance that produces OH- ions
  • Bronsted & Lowry
    • Acid: substance that donates a proton to another substances
    • Base: substance that accepts a proton to another substances

Acids - A Group of Covalent Molecules Which Lose Hydrogen Ions to Water Molecules in Solution

When gaseous hydrogen iodide dissolves in water, the attraction of the

oxygen atom of the water molecule for the hydrogen atom in HI is

greater that the attraction of the of the iodide ion for the hydrogen atom,

and it is lost to the water molecule to form an hydronium ion and an

iodide ion in solution. We can write the hydrogen atom in solution as

either H+(aq) or as H3O+(aq) they mean the same thing in solution. The

presence of a hydrogen atom that is easily lost in solution is an “Acid”

and is called an “acidic” solution. The water (H2O) could also be written

above the arrow indicating that the solvent was water in which the HI

was dissolved.

HI(g) + H2O(L) H+(aq) + I -(aq)

HI(g) + H2O(L) H3O+(aq) + I -(aq)


HI(g) H+(aq) + I -(aq)

figure 4 8b red cabbage juice added to solutions in the beakers photo courtesy of james scherer
Figure 4.8B: Red cabbage juice added to solutions in the beakers.Photo courtesy of James Scherer.
molecular representation of ammonium hydroxide
Molecular representation of ammonium hydroxide.

NH3(aq) + H2O(l) NH4+(aq) + OH-(aq)

reaction of nitric acid with water
Reaction of nitric acid with water.

HNO3(aq)+ H2O(l)  NO3-(aq) + H3O+(aq)


Strong Acid or Base

An acid or base that ionizes completely in water. It is present entirely as ions; it is a strong electrolyte.

Weak Acid or Base
  • An acid or base that is only partly ionized in water. It is present primarily as molecules and partly as ions; it is a weak electrolyte. Weak bases are often nitrogen bases such as NH3:
  • NH3(aq) + H2O(l) →NH4+(aq) + OH-(aq)
  • The most common weak acid is acetic acid:
  • HC2H3O2 (aq)+ H2O(l) → H3O+(aq)+ C2H3O2-(aq)
  • If an acid or base is not strong, it is weak.
Polyprotic Acid
  • An acid that results in two or more acidic hydrogens per molecule
  • For example:

H2SO4, sulfuric acid

Neutralization Reaction
  • A reaction of an acid and a base that results in an ionic compound (a salt) and possibly water
  • Write the molecular, ionic, and net ionic equations for the neutralization of sulfurous acid, H2SO3, by potassium hydroxide, KOH.
Molecular Equation
  • (Balance the reaction and include state symbols)
  • H2SO3(aq) + 2KOH(aq)  2H2O(l) + K2SO3(aq)
  • Ionic Equation
  • H2SO3(aq) + 2K+(aq) + 2OH-(aq) 
  • 2H2O(l) + 2K+(aq) + SO32-(aq)
  • Net Ionic Equation
  • H2SO3(aq) + 2OH-(aq)  2H2O(l) + SO32-(aq)
Acid-Base Reaction with Gas Formation
  • Some salts, when treated with an acid, produce a gas. Typically sulfides, sulfites, and carbonates behave in this way producing hydrogen sulfide, sulfur trioxide, and carbon dioxide, respectively.

The photo shows baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) reacting with acetic acid in vinegar to give bubbles of carbon dioxide.

Write the reaction that’s occurring.


Molarity (Concentration of Solutions)= M

Moles of Solute Moles

Liters of Solution L

M = =

solute = material dissolved into the solvent

In air , Nitrogen is the solvent and oxygen, carbon dioxide, etc.

are the solutes.

In sea water , Water is the solvent, and salt, magnesium chloride, etc.

are the solutes.

In brass , Copper is the solvent (90%), and Zinc is the solute(10%)

preparing a solution i
Preparing a Solution - I
  • Prepare a solution of Sodium Phosphate by dissolving 3.95g of Sodium Phosphate into water and diluting it to 300.0 ml or 0.300 l !
  • What is the Molarity of the salt and each of the ions?
  • Na3PO4 (s) + H2O(solvent) = 3 Na+(aq) + PO4-3(aq)
You place a 1.62-g of potassium dichromate, K2Cr2O7, into a 50.0-mL volumetric flask. You then add water to bring the solution up to the mark on the neck of the flask. What is the molarity of K2CrO7 in the solution?

Molar mass of K2Cr2O7 is 294 g.

0.110 M

  • When a higher concentration solution is used to make a less-concentration solution, the moles of solute are determined by the amount of the higher-concentration solution. The number of moles of solute remains constant.
  • MiVi = MfVf
  • Note:
  • The units on Vi and Vf must match.
A saturated stock solution of NaCl is 6.00 M. How much of this stock solution is needed to prepare 1.00-L of physiological saline soluiton (0.154 M)?
  • A procedure for determining the amount of substance A by adding a carefully measured volume with a known concentration of B until the reaction of A and B is just complete
figure 4 22c titration of an unknown amount of hcl with naoh 3 photo courtesy of american color
Figure 4.22C: Titration of an unknown amount of HCl with NaOH (#3). Photo courtesy of American Color.
Titration of an unknown amount of HCl with NaOH.
  • In the titration above, the indicator changes color to indicate when the reaction is just complete.
Zinc sulfide reacts with hydrochloric acid to produce hydrogen sulfide gas:
  • ZnS(s) + 2HCl(aq) ZnCl2(aq) + H2S(g)
  • How many milliliters of 0.0512 M HCl are required to react with 0.392 g ZnS?
Molar mass of ZnS = 97.47 g
  • = 0.157 L = 157 mL HCl solution