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Dr. Sam Redding, Center for Instruction and Improvement. Virginia Support for School Improvement. Training for Instructional Leaders Session 4 March 30 and 31, 2011. PMI Activity Instructional Strategies. On the PLUS side: What worked well? What was easy? What was a quick win ?

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virginia support for school improvement
Virginia Support for School Improvement

Training for Instructional Leaders

Session 4

March 30 and 31, 2011

pmi activity instructional strategies
PMI Activity Instructional Strategies
  • On the PLUS side: What worked well? What was easy? What was a quick win ?
  • On the MINUS side: What was difficult? What presented somewhat of a challenge?
  • What is INTERESTING that we didn’t expect?
session 4 objectives
Session 4 Objectives
  • Review the concept of metacognition as applied in a classroom
  • Explore interactive teaching strategies
  • Explore collegial coaching
  • Explore additional opportunities to personalize instruction
  • Explore practices for home /school communication
whole class instruction
Whole Class Instruction


Metacognition: Knowing How to Learn

Instructional Delivery Indicators: Teacher-Directed, Whole Class, and/or Small Group (& Related to Metacognition)
  • IIIA11 All teachers use modeling, demonstration, and graphics.
  • IIIA16 All teachers use prompting/cueing.
  • IIIA25 All teachers encourage students to paraphrase, summarize, and relate.
  • IIIA26 All teachers encourage students to check their own comprehension.
  • Metacognition
  • Is thinking about thinking.
  • Incorporates not just learning skills, but learning strategies.
  • Incorporates three major components: goal setting, self monitoring, & self evaluating.
  • Facilitates problem solving in learning.
  • Facilitates the learner’s ability to learn independently and monitor own learning in any situation.
  • Enhances cognition.

The Metacognitive Cycle

  • The Teacher
  • Defines the task: how to exercise higher order thinking; specifically recognizing how an author uses inferencing (for example).
  • Leads learners through the metacognitive cycle inclusive of
  • Learner’s cognitive goal-setting: to demonstrate understanding of how an author uses inferencing. How will learner know when the goal is accomplished? (85% mastery in recognizing inferencing).
  • Learner’s determining a plan/choosing & applying a strategy: Will it be use of the KWL, the Frayer Model, etc.?
  • Learner’s monitoring the plan/use of the chosen strategy. What new information do I need? Is this a simple or difficult task? Is this strategy working for me?
  • Learner’s evaluating the plan/use of the strategy. Did my strategy work? Should I try a different strategy next time for this type goal?



Building Metacognitive Abilities

  • Teachers
  • Connect new learning to prior learning.
  • Help learners focus on what is expected and HOW to meet those expectations.
  • Articulate expectations clearly.
  • Model and demonstrate strategies for mastery in learning.
  • Help learners recognize which strategies work for them individually.
  • Show learners how to “check” their own mastery.
  • Break complicated processes into simpler steps.
  • Help learners focus on mastery rather than fear of failing.
  • Help learners find their own errors and self-correct.
  • Emphasize learning, task mastery/accomplishment of goals and effort rather than ability, performance, and competition.



Developing Learner Metacognitive Processing Skills: SMART Objective:

Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, & Time Specific

By the end of the session, the learner (each workshop participant) will be

able to demonstrate understanding of the Metacognitive Cycle ORALLY

Citing with 85% mastery the 4 requisite components of the Metacognitive

Cycle (inclusive of the individual learner’s goal**, the learner’s plan/STRATEGY,

the learner’s monitoring his/her plan, and the learner’s evaluating his/her plan

for accomplishing his/her goal).

**When the teacher is modeling, it is the cognitive goal of the class and not

just the goal of the individual learner.


Teacher’s Think Aloud

As we progress through the activity, determine if a think aloud automatically

addresses the development of learner metacognitive processing!



Developing Learners’ Metacognitive Thinking Skills: Anticipation Guide Activity

(Pre Reading Strategy to Prepare Learners for Reading)

  • Using your Anticipation Guide/Handout 1 (and Handouts 2- 6) that are in your packet
  • (TASK 1 with your Division Team)
  • READthe statements in column 2 of the Anticipation Guide, and indicate in the BEFORE READING COLUMN whether you agree or disagree with each statement. (10 minutes)
  • (TASK 2 with your Division Team)
  • (a) Read thespecified related text reference (in Handouts 2- 6) for each of the 8 statements, (b) Indicate in the AFTER READING COLUMN if you agree or disagree NOW (upon completion of reading the specified reference), and (c) State in column 5 the big idea of the statement/column 2.(20 minutes)
  • (Wait Time Activity withyour Division Team)
  • Discuss “THE BIG IDEA” relevant to METACOGNITION and what your NEXT STEPS might be inreference to efforts to develop learners’ metacognitive skills.



Wrap Up:Teacher Practices That Do/Do Not Influence Motivation, Metacognition, &/or Constructive Attribution

  • Re: Classroom Observations A & B (See Handouts A & B in packet.)
  • Division Teams will
  • Examine the two sets of talking points the classroom observer is going to share (from Observations A & B) with the principal – at her request.
  • Review the Word Bank of Student Outcomes Handout (See Handout.)
  • Choose & match 3 of the likely learner behaviors, outcomes, practices, and/or perceptions (listed in the Word Bank) that might have been influenced (or not influenced) by the teacher. (Use the Observation Numbers associated with the teacher practice/talking points.)
  • For example # 10, Learner competence, might be matched with
  • Observation A-7. Justify your responses and discuss how you might institutionalize or “change” teacher practices….(20 minutes)


gallery walk
Gallery Walk

From the survey you completed for this session, we are going to focus on two questions for this session.

  • Instructional Teams include pre-post tests in unit planning to assess student mastery of SOL objectives.
  • All teachers systematically report to parents student mastery of specific SOL objectives.
coaches fishbowl
Coaches’ Fishbowl
  • Coaches will be in the center of our fishbowls.
  • Coaches will discuss their approaches to staff training and implementation of TLT
  • Coaches will discuss the successes and roadblocks they have encountered.
  • Observers outside the fishbowl will offer commendations and suggestions to roadblocks they heard.
collegial coaching read reflect
Collegial Coaching: Read & Reflect

Read and discuss pages 27-29 in the Session 3 Manual.

With your school team, answer questions 1 and 2 (Think, Write, Share) on page 27 in the Session 3 Manual.

collegial coaching
Collegial Coaching
  • Strengthens an environment of trust
  • Increases interdependency
  • Values coaching qualities
  • Develops communication guidelines
  • Invites observation opportunities
  • Identifies a time for reflection and discussion, before and after observation
parent communication and homework indicators
Parent Communication and Homework Indicators
  • IIIB01 – All teachers maintain a file of communication with parents.
  • IIIB02 – All teachers regularly assign homework (4 or more days a week).
  • IIIB03 – All teachers check, mark, and return homework.
  • IIIB06 – All teachers systematically report to parents the student’s mastery of specific standards-based objectives.
homework next steps
Homework / Next Steps
  • Read pages 17 and 18 in the Session 4 Manual – Homework and Communication with Parents
  • Review pages 19 and 20 in the Session 4 Manual – Class Progress Chart and Student Learning Report
  • Complete Next Steps on page 21 of the Session 4 Manual – the last two rows of questions
franklin triage activity
Franklin Triage Activity

Developing a process to connect academic performance, discipline, and attendance to work to improve student performance.

Bev Rabel, Associate Director of Instruction, and Annie Harmon, Division Liaison for Franklin City


What is a Student Learning Plan?

  • It
  • Is a prescription for the individual student – based on his/her Pre Test performance relevant to individual Standards of Learning (SOL) within a unit.
  • Comes from the Learning Plan Grid that has activities for students who have performed at the Prerequisite, Target, and/or Enhanced level on individual SOL within the unit.
  • Can include tiered activities from all/any of the various modes of instruction (i.e., Teacher-Directed…).

What is a Student Learning Plan? (continued)

  • It
  • Can include activities from each tier (P, T, E) for an individual student depending on his/her Pre Test performance.
  • Can/Will be the same for some students -- i.e., several students might have performed at the Target Level for SOL Reading 5.5b (Describe character development in fiction....) and at the Prerequisite Level for 5.5c (Describe the development of plot and explain how conflicts are resolved.). The students would have those items in common on their individual plans.

Why Student Learning Plans (SLP)?

  • The Student Learning Plan
  • Brings the planning to the classroom and into the hands of the individual student.
  • Is a vehicle for bringing each student into proper relationship with content through personalization.
  • Enables the student to become increasingly responsible for monitoring his/her progress.

Why Student Learning Plans (SLP)?(continued)

  • The Student Learning Plan
  • Gives the teacher the flexibility to adjust instruction with monitoring and interaction.
  • Is a vehicle for communicating student prescriptions from teacher to teacher (in school and after school, for example).
  • Is an Inventory System that organizes and displays curriculum.
  • Is a Record Keeper that helps students self-monitor and assist with teacher/teacher and teacher/student communication.
  • Is a Communication Tool between school-home.

Student Learning Plan for Instructional Success What is needed?

  • Student Engagement influenced by
  • Teacher Involvement – Student Relatedness
  • Teacher Structure (Best Practices)- Student Competence
  • Teacher Autonomy Support– Student Mastery/ Student Independence/Student Relevance through Student Autonomy


student directed group or individual work indicators
Student-Directed Group or Individual Work Indicators
  • IIIA28 – All teachers travel to all areas in which students are working.
  • IIIA31 – All teachers interact instructionally with students (explaining, checking, giving feedback).
student directed group or individual work indicators1
Student-Directed Group or Individual Work Indicators
  • IIIA32 – All teachers interact managerially with students (reinforcing rules, procedures).
  • IIIA33 – All teachers interact socially with students (noticing and attending to an ill student, asking about the weekend, inquiring about the family).

Computer-Based Instruction Indicators

  • IIIA35 – Students are engaged and on task.
  • IIIA40 – All teachers assess student mastery in ways other than those provided by the computer program.
gallery walk1
Gallery Walk

From the survey you completed for this session, we are going to focus on two questions for this session.

  • Instructional Teams develop SOL based units of instruction for each subject and grade level. Units of instruction include specific learning activities aligned to objectives and leveled to differentiate instruction
  • Professional development for teachers includes peer observations related to indicators of effective teaching and classroom management.

Summing It Up!

The keys to improved academic achievement are professional practices of teachers and leaders, not the economic, ethnic, or linguistic characteristics of the students (Reeves 2005).



  • There is a positive and significant correlation between teacher practices and student engagement (Baskerville, 2008). And student engagement influences student performance and achievement (Connell & Wellborn, 1991).
  • The keys to improved academic achievement are professional practices of teachers and leaders, not the economic, ethnic, or linguistic characteristics of the students (Reeves, 2005).
  • Teacher classroom practices can have an effect on student achievement equal to or exceeding socioeconomic status (Wenglinsky, 2002).