Day Care Early Socialisation
Task • Taking into account your own views and what you have learned about attachment, list the pros and cons of day care.
The Nature of Day Care • Today’s society means women go back to work more quickly than before. • Up to 52 weeks maternity leave. The first 26 weeks is known as ‘Ordinary Maternity Leave’, the last 26 weeks as ‘Additional Maternity Leave’. • The earliest leave can be taken is 11 weeks before the expected week of childbirth. Employees must take at least 2 weeks after the birth (or 4 weeks if they’re a factory worker). • Statutory Maternity Pay (SMP) is paid for up to 39 weeks. You get: • 90% of your average weekly earnings (before tax) for the first 6 weeks • £136.78 or 90% of your average weekly earnings (whichever is lower) for the next 33 weeks
Types of Day Care • Nurseries – state or private • Childminders • Informal arrangements.
Features of Quality Day Care • Phillips and Howes (1987) identified 3 important features: • Structural Features: The National Day Care Study (Roupp, Travers, Glantz and Coelen, 1979) . Group size, staff:childratio,training, space, equipment. • Dynamic Features: Experiences and interactions. • Contextual Features: Staff stability and turnover.
Cognitive Development +ves Bruchinel, 1989 – those who were in day care had a higher IQ than those who did not. Broberget al., 1997 .3 groups of 8 year-old children, who had received different types of care in infancy - day nurseries, childminders or remained at home. Those children who had experienced care in day nurseries had better verbal and mathematical abilities than the others. There was even a positive correlation between length of time spent in day nurseries and cognitive ability -Ve Bryant et al, 1983 Middle class Oxford childminders – 75% were detached, 25% had poor speech. (Baydar and Brooks-Gunn, 1991 the cognitive ability of those children who started day care earlier was lower than that of the later starters Kagen et al , 1980 No difference
Emotional Development +ves Lazar and Darlington, 1982 Headstart children were more likely to have attended college and less likely to be trouble with the law and claiming welfare. -ves World Health Organisation “Day care can cause permanent damage to a child”
Social Development +ves Shea 1981 Those who attended 5 x wk more sociable than those who attended twice. Clarke-Stewart et al, 1994 cope better with the new social interactions when they start attending school . -ves Pennebakeret al, 1981 If children are already shy day care will have a negative effect. Cole and Cole, 1996. Other studies suggest that children in day care centres tend to be more aggressive .
Conclusions What are your thoughts? What problems are there with these studies? Can we compare them like for like? Do you think the positives outweigh the negatives? If you had a child would you put them into day care? If so, which type?